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2016-10-20Add some tolerance (RFC2616 sec. 19.3) rfc2616-sec19.3Mishael A Sibiryakov2-1/+19
Hi all. We're implementing client certificate authentication with nginx and unicorn.  Nginx configured in the following way: proxy_set_header X-SSL-Client-Cert $ssl_client_cert; When client submits certificate and nginx passes it to the unicorn, unicorn responds with 400 (Bad Request). This caused because nginx doesn't use "\r\n" they using just "\n" and multilne headers is failed to parse (I've added test). Accorording to RFC2616 section 19.3: "The line terminator for message-header fields is the sequence CRLF. However, we recommend that applications, when parsing such headers, recognize a single LF as a line terminator and ignore the leading CR." CRLF changed to ("\r\n" | "\n") Github commit PS: Googling "nginx unicorn ssl_client_cert" shows the problem. 
2016-07-28doc: update gmane URLs to point to our own archivesEric Wong4-7/+9
Gmane's NNTP server remains up, but the HTTP site is down: Anyways, our own archives are designed to be mirror-able via git: git clone --mirror And the code is self-hostable: git clone
2016-06-20examples/logrotate.conf: update example for systemdEric Wong1-1/+16
...And add placeholders for other systems
2016-06-13doc: systemd should only kill master in exampleEric Wong1-0/+5
By default, systemd kills every process in the control group when stopping a service. While it ought to be harmless to signal workers, some Rack applications (and perhaps further subprocesses) can misbehave when interrupted by a signal. Ensure we only hit the master on graceful shutdown to avoid tickling bugs in Rack apps. This is the reason we switched to having the master send "fake" signals for workers beginning with unicorn 4.8.0 back in 2013/2014.
2016-04-01unicorn 5.1.0 - rack is optional, again v5.1.0Eric Wong1-1/+1
Note: no code changes since 5.1.0.pre1 from January.^WNo, wait, last minute performance improvement added today. See below. The big change is rack is not required (but still recommended). Applications are expected to depend on rack on their own so they can specify the version of rack they prefer without unicorn pulling in a newer, potentially incompatible version. unicorn will always attempt to work with multiple versions of rack as practical. The HTTP parser also switched to using the TypedData C-API for extra type safety and memory usage accounting support in the 'objspace' extension. Thanks to Adam Duke to bringing the rack change to our attention and Aaron Patterson for helping with the matter. Last minute change: we now support the new leftpad() syscall under Linux for major performance and security improvement: 8^H9 changes since 5.0.1: http: TypedData C-API conversion various documentation updates doc: bump olddoc to ~> 1.2 for extra NNTP URL rack is optional at runtime, required for dev doc update for ClientShutdown exceptions class unicorn 5.1.0.pre1 - rack is optional, again doc: reference --keep-file-descriptors for "bundle exec" doc: further trimming to reduce noise use leftpad Linux syscall for speed!
2016-03-31doc: further trimming to reduce noiseEric Wong2-11/+4
It's not worth mentioning pre-Rack versions of Rails anymore, and there are a few async Rack applications reliant on EventMachine which we do not use. Some uses of chunked request decoding are not well-handled with nginx in front, anyways; so avoid mentioning them. Additionally, avoid introducing new terms into the lexicon and just refer to "mailing list" as a generic term.
2016-03-17doc: reference --keep-file-descriptors for "bundle exec"Eric Wong2-3/+5
"bundle exec" alone is not suitable for use with systemd-style socket activation due to Ruby 2.0+ behavior of setting close-on-exec for file descriptors above 2. However, the "--keep-file-descriptors" option was added to bundler 1.4.0 to workaround this Ruby 2.0 change and may be used to prevent Ruby 2.0+ from closing file descriptors on exec. Thanks to Amir Yalon and Christos Trochalakis for bringing up this issue on the mailing list:
2016-01-27unicorn 5.1.0.pre1 - rack is optional, again v5.1.0.pre1Eric Wong1-1/+1
The big change is rack is not required (but still recommended). Applications are expected to depend on rack on their own so they can specify the version of rack they prefer without unicorn pulling in a newer, potentially incompatible version. unicorn will always attempt to work with multiple versions of rack as practical. The HTTP parser also switched to using the TypedData C-API for extra type safety and memory usage accounting support in the 'objspace' extension. Thanks to Adam Duke to bringing the rack change to our attention and Aaron Patterson for helping with the matter. There might be more documentation-related changes before 5.1.0 final. I am considering dropping pandoc from manpage generation and relying on pod2man (from Perl) because it has a wider install base. 5 changes since v5.0.1: http: TypedData C-API conversion various documentation updates doc: bump olddoc to ~> 1.2 for extra NNTP URL rack is optional at runtime, required for dev doc update for ClientShutdown exceptions class
2016-01-27doc update for ClientShutdown exceptions classEric Wong1-1/+3
State explicitly applications should not rely on it, and instead rescue the generic EOFError exception. This class will stick around because there may inevitably be things which rely on it, but we should not encourage it, either.
2016-01-27rack is optional at runtime, required for devEric Wong3-25/+37
We do not want to pull in a newer or older version of rack depending on an the application running under it requires. Furthermore, it has always been possible to use unicorn without any middleware at all. Without rack, we'll be missing descriptive status text in the first response line, but any valid HTTP/1.x parser should be able to handle it properly. ref: Thanks-to: Adam Duke <> Thanks-to: Aaron Patterson <>
2016-01-09doc: bump olddoc to ~> 1.2 for extra NNTP URLEric Wong2-2/+4
Additional advertising for the gmane NNTP server makes sense from a robustness standpoint: nntp:// Not advertising other HTTP-based URLs just yet. They could contain images/frames/JS/CSS and add unnecessary clutter to the footer. NNTP puts the client in control of UI.
2016-01-07various documentation updatesEric Wong7-19/+13
* add nntp_url to the olddoc website footer * update legacy support status for 4.x (not 4.8.x) * update copyright range to 2016 * note all of our development tools are Free Software, too * remove cgit mention; it may not always be cgit (but URLs should remain compatible). * discourage downloading snapshot tarballs; "git clone" + periodic "git fetch" is more efficient * remove most mentions of unicorn_rails as that was meant for ancient Rails 1.x/2.x users * update path reference to Ruby 2.3.0 * fix nginx upstream module link to avoid redirect * shorten Message-ID example to avoid redirects and inadvertant linkage
2015-12-13http: TypedData C-API conversionEric Wong2-12/+37
This provides some extra type safety if combined with other C extensions, as well as allowing us to account for memory usage of the HTTP parser in ObjectSpace. This requires Ruby 1.9.3+ and has remained a stable API since then. This will become officially supported when Ruby 2.3.0 is released later this month. This API has only been documented in doc/extension.rdoc (formerly README.EXT) in the Ruby source tree since April 2015, r50318
2015-11-17unicorn 5.0.1 - continuing to violate Rack SPEC v5.0.1Eric Wong1-1/+1
Once again, we allow nil values in response headers. We've had this bug since March 2009, and thus cannot expect existing applications and middlewares running unicorn to fix this. Unfortunately, supporting this bug contributes to application server lock-in, but at least we'll document it as such. Thanks to Owen Ou <> for reporting this regression: Additionally, systemd examples are now in the examples/ directory based on a post by Christos Trochalakis <>:
2015-11-17add .gitattributes for Ruby method detectionEric Wong1-0/+5
The "diff" function detection for C does not map well to Ruby files, take advantage of gitattributes(5) to improve method name detection in generated patches as well as making "git diff -W" output more useful.
2015-11-17examples: add systemd socket and service filesEric Wong2-0/+37
Since we have init scripts, we ought to have the equivalent for systemd users who cannot upgrade via the normal SIGUSR2 mechanism; but can use multiple services: "unicorn@1" + h"unicorn@2" to accomplish the same thing. Based on examples by Christos Trochalakis <> ref:
2015-11-17http_response: allow nil values in response headersEric Wong2-1/+10
This blatantly violates Rack SPEC, but we've had this bug since March 2009[1]. Thus, we cannot expect all existing applications and middlewares to fix this bug and will probably have to support it forever. Unfortunately, supporting this bug contributes to application server lock-in, but at least we'll document it as such. [1] commit 1835c9e2e12e6674b52dd80e4598cad9c4ea1e84 ("HttpResponse: speed up non-multivalue headers") Reported-by: Owen Ou <> Ref: <>
2015-11-01unicorn 5.0.0 - most boring major release. EVER. v5.0.0Eric Wong1-1/+1
An evolutionary dead-end since its announcement[1] nearly six years ago, this old-fashioned preforker has had enough bugs and missteps that it's managed to hit version 5! I wish I could say unicorn 5 is leaps and bounds better than 4, but it is not. This major version change allows us to drop some cruft and unused features which accumulated over the years, resulting in several kilobytes of memory saved[2]! Compatibility: * The horrible, proprietary (:P) "Status:" response header is finally gone, saving at least 16 precious bytes in every HTTP response. This should make it easier to write custom HTTP clients which are compatible across all HTTP servers. It will hopefully make migrating between different Rack servers easier for new projects. * Ruby 1.8 support removed. Ruby 1.9.3 is currently the earliest supported version. However, expect minor, likely-unnoticeable performance regressions if you use Ruby 2.1 or earlier. Going forward, unicorn will favor the latest version (currently 2.2) of the mainline Ruby implementation, potentially sacrificing performance on older Rubies. * Some internal, undocumented features and APIs used by derivative servers are gone; removing bloat and slightly lowering memory use. We have never and will never endorse the use of any applications or middleware with a dependency on unicorn, applications should be written for Rack instead. Note: Rainbows! 5.0 will be released next week or so to be compatible with unicorn 5.x New features: * sd_listen_fds(3) emulation added for systemd compatibility. You may now stop using PID files and other process monitoring software when using systemd. * Newly-set TCP socket options are now applied to inherited sockets. * Dynamic changes in the application to Rack::Utils::HTTP_STATUS hash is now supported; allowing users to set custom status lines in Rack to be reflected in unicorn. This feature causes a minor performance regression, but is made up for Ruby 2.2 users with other optimizations. * The monotonic clock is used under Ruby 2.1+, making the timeout feature immune to system clock changes. As unicorn may be used anonymously without registration, the project is committed to supporting anonymous and pseudonymous help requests, contributions and feedback via plain-text mail to: The mail submission port (587) is open to those behind firewalls and allows access via Tor and anonymous remailers. Archives are accessible via: and mirrored to various other places, so you do not need to use a valid address when posting. Finally, rest assured the core design of unicorn will never change. It will never use new-fangled things like threads, kqueue or epoll; but will always remain a preforking server serving one client per-process. [1] [2] this would've been like, totally gnarly in the 80s!
2015-11-01manpage: reference systemd socket activation featureEric Wong1-0/+5
We cannot rely on users reading release notes.
2015-11-01doc updatesEric Wong2-4/+5
ISSUES: note images are considered spam as well as HTML. Links: Clarify we may only endorse the Free versions of nginx, not the non-Free versions. Add a link to Starman as a unicorn derivative, as I even use Starman myself. Remove yahns, since it's really the complete opposite of unicorn and probably not appropriate to place next to Starman and gunicorn
2015-11-01gemspec: relax Ruby version requirement for old RubyGemsEric Wong1-2/+10
Older RubyGems ( at least) does not seem to support multiple version requirements for the Ruby version; so drop the lower 1.9.3 requirement for now.
2015-11-01golf down conditional for socket activationEric Wong1-1/+1
The PID of a process can never be zero as kill(2) interprets a '0' PID arg as "every process in caller's process group", so there's no risk of the 'nil.to_i => 0' conversion resulting in a truth value when compared to $$.
2015-10-27inheriting sockets from UNICORN_FD does not close themEric Wong2-3/+21
For some reason, I thought invalid descriptors passed to UNICORN_FD would be automatically closed by the master process; but apparently this hasn't been the case. On the other hand, this bug has been around for over 6 years now and nobody noticed or cared enough to tell us, so fixing it might break existing setups. Since there may be users relying on this behavior, we cannot change the behavior anymore; so update the documentation and write at test to ensure we can never "fix" this bug at the expense of breaking any working setups which may be out there. Keep in mind that a before_exec hook may always be used to modify the UNICORN_FD environment by setting the close_on_exec flag and removing the appropriate descriptor from the environment. I originally intended to add the ability to inherit new listeners without a config file specification so systemd users can avoid repeating themselves in the systemd and unicorn config files, but apparently there is nothing to change in our code.
2015-10-27sd_listen_fds emulation cleanupEric Wong2-19/+25
Re-enable and expand on the test case while we're at it for new Rubies. The bug is now fixed in Ruby 2.3.0dev as of r51576. We shall assume anybody running a pre-release 2.3.0 at this point is running a fairly recent snapshot, so we won't bother doing a finer-grained check in the test for an exact revision number.
2015-10-15doc: DESIGN: update old statements.Eric Wong2-7/+2
The statement about C exts hasn't been true since 2010 when kgio was unfortunately introduced. However, I've been working on killing off kgio. Maybe raindrops isn't worth it given the limits of SMP, either. And I'm even tempted to rewrite the HTTP parser in Ruby... Furthermore, Ruby Enterprise Edition is long gone and Ruby 2.0 is already old, so update that bit about CoW-friendliness. While we're at it, avoid mentioning kgio at all in the Links document, too.
2015-10-15unicorn.conf.rb: remove mention of REE-specific settingEric Wong1-4/+1
Ruby 2.0+ has a copy-on-write-friendly memory layout by default, and REE is long dead and just confusing to new users.
2015-10-05doc: update mail archive infoEric Wong2-27/+23
public-inbox supports read-only NNTP access nowadays to make it easier to follow archives. It is read-only to encourage Cc:-ing all participants (which avoids reliance on the few-points-of-failure behavior of NNTP). Unlike email, NNTP also lacks good anti-spam filtering. Additionally, the gmane group also got redirected to the address at some point since RubyForge died. While we're at it, link to my post about enabling the submission port (587). It's been a year and nothing bad has happened, yet. Finally, remove most of the documentation for ssoma since it's unlikely anybody will use it given the existence of NNTP access. It did little besides clutter the page. However, git:// (used by ssoma) remains strictly more efficient than NNTP. Vebavpnyyl, gur AAGC freire sbe choyvp-vaobk pna unaqyr gubhfnaqf bs fybj pyvragf. Fbzrguvat havpbea jvyy arire or noyr gb qb :C
2015-08-22gemspec: limit to 1.9.3 and 2.xEric Wong1-0/+1
It does not look like we'll be compatible with Ruby 3.0 with the plan for immutable string literals. However, keep in mind 3.0 is still many years away and decisions can change, so it would be premature to stop assuming frozen string literals this year. ref:
2015-08-22stream_input: favor String#clear over String#replaceEric Wong1-3/+3
We no longer need Ruby 1.8 compatibility, so use String#clear to reduce argument passing and code size.
2015-07-15doc: remove references to old serversEric Wong15-93/+78
They'll continue to be maintained, but we're no longer advertising them. Also, favor lowercase "unicorn" while we're at it since that matches the executable and gem name to avoid unnecessary escaping for RDoc.
2015-07-15configurator: document net.core.somaxconn sysctl dependencyEric Wong1-0/+5
Linux users are effectively capped to 128 on stock installations and may wonder why connections get rejected with overloaded apps sooner rather than later.
2015-07-08test_exec: disable systemd inheritance testEric Wong1-1/+3
Turns out ruby does have trouble emulating systemd, for now: [ruby-core:69895] When we re-enable this test, we'll only enable it for fixed Rubies. The actual socket inheritance functionality works in any version of Ruby, of course, it's just that emulating systemd won't work until ruby-core fixes mainline Ruby.
2015-07-06unicorn 5.0.0.pre2 - another prerelease! v5.0.0.pre2Eric Wong1-1/+1
There is a minor TCP socket options are now applied to inherited sockets, and we have native support for inheriting sockets from systemd (by emulating the sd_listen_fds(3) function). Dynamic changes in the application to Rack::Utils::HTTP_STATUS codes is now supported, so you can use your own custom status lines. Ruby 2.2 and later is now favored for performance. Optimizations by using constants which made sense in earlier versions of Ruby are gone: so users of old Ruby versions will see performance regressions. Ruby 2.2 users should see the same or better performance, and we have less code as a result. * doc: update some invalid URLs * apply TCP socket options on inherited sockets * reflect changes in Rack::Utils::HTTP_STATUS_CODES * reduce constants and optimize for Ruby 2.2 * http_response: reduce size of multi-line header path * emulate sd_listen_fds for systemd support * test/unit/test_response.rb: compatibility with older test-unit This also includes all changes in unicorn 5.0.0.pre1:
2015-07-05test/unit/test_response.rb: compatibility with older test-unitEric Wong1-1/+1
assert_predicate really isn't that useful even if it seems preferred in another project I work on. Avoid having folks download the latest test-unit if they're on an old version of Ruby (e.g. 1.9.3) which bundled it.
2015-07-05emulate sd_listen_fds for systemd supportEric Wong2-3/+37
systemd socket emulation shares FDs across execve, just like the built-in SIGUSR2 upgrade process in unicorn. Thus it is easy to support inheriting sockets from systemd. Tested-by: Christos Trochalakis <>
2015-06-30http_response: reduce size of multi-line header pathEric Wong1-1/+1
This should save over 100 bytes of bytecode overhead due to reduced method dispatch points. The performance difference when this is actually hit could go either way depending on how String#<< and realloc(3) interact, but it's uncommon enough that nobody is expected to notice either way.
2015-06-30reduce constants and optimize for Ruby 2.2Eric Wong2-16/+9
Ruby (MRI) 2.1 optimizes allocations away on String#freeze with literal strings. Furthermore, Ruby 2.2 optimizes away literal string allocations when they are used as arguments to Hash#[] and Hash#[]= Thus we can avoid expensive constant lookups and cache overhead by taking advantage of advancements in Ruby. Since Ruby 2.2 has been out for 7 months, now; it ought to be safe to introduce minor performance regressions for folks using older Rubies (1.9.3+ remains supported) to benefit folks on the latest Ruby. This should recover the performance lost in the "reflect changes in Rack::Utils::HTTP_STATUS_CODES" change in synthetic benchmarks.
2015-06-30reflect changes in Rack::Utils::HTTP_STATUS_CODESEric Wong2-8/+27
Applications may want to alter the message associated with HTTP status codes in Rack::Utils::HTTP_STATUS_CODES. Avoid memoizing status lines ahead-of-time Note: this introduces a minor performance regression, but ought to be unnoticeable unless you're running "Hello world"-type apps.
2015-06-27apply TCP socket options on inherited socketsEric Wong1-2/+3
TCP socket options are now set when inheriting existing sockets from a parent process. I'm fairly certain all the TCP setsockopt knobs we use are idempotent and harmless to change. If anything, the only directive I'd be uncomfortable changing is shortening the listen(2) (aka :backlog) size, but we've always changed that anyways since it also applies to UNIX sockets. Note: removing a configuration knob in a unicorn config file can not reset the value to the OS-provided default setting. Inherited sockets must use a new setting to override existing ones. (or the socket needs to be closed and re-created in the process launcher before unicorn inherits it). Noticed-by: Christos Trochalakis <> <>
2015-06-26doc: update some invalid URLsEric Wong8-13/+15
Most of these were found by the `linkchecker' package in Debian.
2015-06-15unicorn 5.0.0.pre1 - incompatible changes! v5.0.0.pre1Eric Wong1-1/+1
This release finally drops Ruby 1.8 support and requires Ruby 1.9.3 or later. The horrible "Status:" header in our HTTP response is finally gone, saving at least 16 precious bytes in every single HTTP response. Under Ruby 2.1 and later, the monotonic clock is used for timeout handling for better accuracy. Several experimental, unused and undocumented features are removed. There's also tiny, minor performance and memory improvements from dropping 1.8 compatibility, but probably nothing noticeable on a typical real-life (bloated) app. The biggest performance improvement we made was to our website by switching to olddoc. Depending on connection speed, latency, and renderer performance, it typically loads two to four times faster. Finally, for the billionth time: unicorn must never be exposed to slow clients, as it will never ever use new-fangled things like non-blocking socket I/O, threads, epoll or kqueue. unicorn must be used with a fully-buffering reverse proxy such as nginx for slow clients. * ISSUES: update with mailing list subscription * GIT-VERSION-GEN: start 5.0.0 development * http: remove xftrust options * FAQ: add entry for Rails autoflush_log * dev: remove isolate dependency * unicorn.gemspec: depend on test-unit 3.0 * http_response: remove Status: header * remove RubyForge and Freecode references * remove references * http: remove the keepalive requests limit * http: reduce parser from 72 to 56 bytes on 64-bit * examples: add run_once to before_fork hook example * worker: remove old tmp accessor * http_server: save 450+ bytes of memory on x86-64 * t/ relax test for rack 1.6.0 * remove SSL support * tmpio: drop the "size" method * switch docs + website to olddoc * README: clarify/reduce references to unicorn_rails * gemspec: fixup olddoc migration * use the monotonic clock under Ruby 2.1+ * http: -Wshorten-64-to-32 warnings on clang * remove old inetd+git examples and exec_cgi * http: standalone require + reduction in binary size * GNUmakefile: fix clean gem build + reduce build cruft * socket_helper: reduce constant lookups and caching * remove 1.8, <= 1.9.1 fallback for missing IO#autoclose= * favor IO#close_on_exec= over fcntl in 1.9+ * use require_relative to reduce syscalls at startup * doc: update support status for Ruby versions * fix uninstalled testing and reduce require paths * test_socket_helper: do not depend on SO_REUSEPORT * favor "a.b(&:c)" form over "a.b { |x| x.c }" * ISSUES: add section for bugs in other projects * http_server: favor ivars over constants * explain 11 byte magic number for self-pipe * const: drop constants used by Rainbows! * reduce and localize constant string use * Links: mark Rainbows! as historical, reference yahns * save about 200 bytes of memory on x86-64 * http: remove deprecated reset method * http: remove experimental dechunk! method * socket_helper: update comments * doc: document UNICORN_FD in manpage * doc: document Etc.nprocessors for worker_processes * favor more string literals for cold call sites * tee_input: support for Rack::TempfileReaper middleware * support TempfileReaper in deployment and development envs * favor kgio_wait_readable for single FD over select * Merge tag 'v4.9.0' * http_request: support rack.hijack by default * avoid extra allocation for hijack proc creation * FAQ: add note about ECONNRESET errors from bodies * process SIGWINCH unless stdin is a TTY * ISSUES: discourage HTML mail strongly, welcome nyms * http: use rb_hash_clear in Ruby 2.0+ * http_response: avoid special-casing for Rack < 1.5 * www: install NEWS.atom.xml properly * http_server: remove a few more accessors and constants * http_response: simplify regular expression * move the socket into Rack env for hijacking * http: move response_start_sent into the C ext * FAQ: reorder bit on Rack 1.1.x and Rails 2.3.x * ensure body is closed during hijack
2015-06-10ensure body is closed during hijackEric Wong5-24/+20
Middlewares such as Rack::Lock (used by Rails) break badly unless the response body is closed on hijack, so we will close it to follow the lead of other popular Rack servers. While it's unclear if there's anybody using rack.hijack with unicorn, we'll try to emulate the behavior of other servers as much as possible. ref:
2015-06-06FAQ: reorder bit on Rack 1.1.x and Rails 2.3.xEric Wong1-8/+8
These things were a while ago, and while apps using them still exist, they should not be near the top of the FAQ.
2015-06-06http: move response_start_sent into the C extEric Wong3-6/+35
Combined with the previous commit to eliminate the `@socket' instance variable, this eliminates the last instance variable in the Unicorn::HttpRequest class. Eliminating the last instance variable avoids the creation of a internal hash table used for implementing the "generic" instance variables found in non-pure-Ruby classes. Method entry overhead remains the same. While this change doesn't do a whole lot for unicorn memory usage where the HttpRequest is a singleton, it helps other HTTP servers which rely on this code where thousands of clients may be connected.
2015-06-06move the socket into Rack env for hijackingEric Wong1-2/+3
This avoids the expensive generic instance variable for @socket and exposes the socket as `env["unicorn.socket"]' to the Rack application. As as nice side-effect, applications may access `env["unicorn.socket"]' as part of the API may be useful for 3rd-party bits such as Raindrops::TCP_Info for reading the tcp_info struct on Linux-based systems. Yes, `env["unicorn.socket"]' is a proprietary API in unicorn! News at 11! But then again, unicorn is not the first Rack server to implement `env["#{servername}.socket"]', either...
2015-06-04http_response: simplify regular expressionEric Wong1-1/+1
It's ugly and less-readable to have redundant \z statements, and according to ObjectSpace.memsize_of, this saves 4 bytes on x86-64.
2015-06-04http_server: remove a few more accessors and constantsEric Wong2-29/+28
Unnecessarily exposed accessors and constants take up unnecessary memory in constant/method tables as well as using extra space in instruction sequences. Preforking servers like unicorn are a bloated pigs anyways, but saving a few hundred bytes here and there can add up and make them marginally less bad.
2015-06-01www: install NEWS.atom.xml properlyEric Wong1-0/+1
I just noticed the 4.9.0 release was not properly reflected in the Atom news feed at
2015-06-01http_response: avoid special-casing for Rack < 1.5Eric Wong1-13/+3
Rack 1.4 and earlier will soon die out, so avoid having extra, overengineered code and method dispatch to silently drop support for mis-hijacking with old Rack versions. This will cause improperly hijacked responses in all versions of Rack to fail, but allows properly hijacked responses to work regardless of Rack version. Followup-to: commit fdf09e562733f9509d275cb13c1c1a04e579a68a ("http_request: support rack.hijack by default")
2015-05-29http: use rb_hash_clear in Ruby 2.0+Eric Wong2-3/+19
Calling the function directly avoids the overhead of Ruby method table lookup and global method cache. The only downside is this is now hidden from tracers and cannot be overridden from Ruby, but I doubt anybody cares about that.