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unicorn 5.2.0 / 2016-10-31 20:00 UTC

Most notably, this release allows us to support requests with
lines delimited by LF-only, as opposed to the standard CRLF
pair and allowed by RFC 2616 sec 19.3.

Thanks to Mishael A Sibiryakov for the explanation and change:

  https://bogomips.org/unicorn-public/1476954332.1736.156.camel@junki.org/

Thanks to Let's Encrypt, the website also moves to HTTPS
<https://bogomips.org/unicorn/> to improve reader privacy.  The
"unicorn.bogomips.org" subdomain will be retired soon to reduce
subjectAltName bloat and speed up certificate renewals.

There's also the usual round of documentation and example
updates, too.

Eric Wong (7):
      examples/init.sh: update to reduce upgrade raciness
      doc: systemd should only kill master in example
      examples/logrotate.conf: update example for systemd
      doc: update gmane URLs to point to our own archives
      relocate website to https://bogomips.org/unicorn/
      TODO: remove Rack 2.x item
      build: "install-gem" target avoids network

Mishael A Sibiryakov (1):
      Add some tolerance (RFC2616 sec. 19.3)

unicorn 5.1.0 - rack is optional, again / 2016-04-01 00:35 UTC

Note: no code changes since 5.1.0.pre1 from January.^WNo, wait,
last minute performance improvement added today.  See below.

The big change is rack is not required (but still recommended).
Applications are expected to depend on rack on their own so they can
specify the version of rack they prefer without unicorn pulling
in a newer, potentially incompatible version.

unicorn will always attempt to work with multiple versions of rack
as practical.

The HTTP parser also switched to using the TypedData C-API for
extra type safety and memory usage accounting support in the
'objspace' extension.

Thanks to Adam Duke to bringing the rack change to our attention
and Aaron Patterson for helping with the matter.

Last minute change: we now support the new leftpad() syscall under
Linux for major performance and security improvement:

    http://mid.gmane.org/1459463613-32473-1-git-send-email-richard@nod.at

8^H9 changes since 5.0.1:

      http: TypedData C-API conversion
      various documentation updates
      doc: bump olddoc to ~> 1.2 for extra NNTP URL
      rack is optional at runtime, required for dev
      doc update for ClientShutdown exceptions class
      unicorn 5.1.0.pre1 - rack is optional, again
      doc: reference --keep-file-descriptors for "bundle exec"
      doc: further trimming to reduce noise
      use leftpad Linux syscall for speed!

unicorn 5.1.0.pre1 - rack is optional, again / 2016-01-27 23:08 UTC

The big change is rack is not required (but still recommended).
Applications are expected to depend on rack on their own so they can
specify the version of rack they prefer without unicorn pulling
in a newer, potentially incompatible version.

unicorn will always attempt to work with multiple versions of rack
as practical.

The HTTP parser also switched to using the TypedData C-API for
extra type safety and memory usage accounting support in the
'objspace' extension.

Thanks to Adam Duke to bringing the rack change to our attention
and Aaron Patterson for helping with the matter.

There might be more documentation-related changes before 5.1.0
final.  I am considering dropping pandoc from manpage generation
and relying on pod2man (from Perl) because it has a wider install
base.

5 changes since v5.0.1:

      http: TypedData C-API conversion
      various documentation updates
      doc: bump olddoc to ~> 1.2 for extra NNTP URL
      rack is optional at runtime, required for dev
      doc update for ClientShutdown exceptions class

unicorn 5.0.1 - continuing to violate Rack SPEC / 2015-11-17 22:44 UTC

Once again, we allow nil values in response headers.  We've had
this bug since March 2009, and thus cannot expect existing
applications and middlewares running unicorn to fix this.

Unfortunately, supporting this bug contributes to application
server lock-in, but at least we'll document it as such.

Thanks to Owen Ou <o@heroku.com> for reporting this regression:

  http://bogomips.org/unicorn-public/CAO47=rJa=zRcLn_Xm4v2cHPr6c0UswaFC_omYFEH+baSxHOWKQ@mail.gmail.com/

Additionally, systemd examples are now in the examples/ directory
based on a post by Christos Trochalakis <yatiohi@ideopolis.gr>:

  http://bogomips.org/unicorn-public/20150708130821.GA1361@luke.ws.skroutz.gr/

unicorn 5.0.0 - most boring major release. EVER. / 2015-11-01 08:48 UTC

An evolutionary dead-end since its announcement[1] nearly six years
ago, this old-fashioned preforker has had enough bugs and missteps
that it's managed to hit version 5!

I wish I could say unicorn 5 is leaps and bounds better than 4, but
it is not.  This major version change allows us to drop some cruft
and unused features which accumulated over the years, resulting in
several kilobytes of memory saved[2]!

Compatibility:

* The horrible, proprietary (:P) "Status:" response header is
  finally gone, saving at least 16 precious bytes in every HTTP
  response.  This should make it easier to write custom HTTP clients
  which are compatible across all HTTP servers.  It will hopefully
  make migrating between different Rack servers easier for new
  projects.

* Ruby 1.8 support removed.  Ruby 1.9.3 is currently the earliest
  supported version.  However, expect minor, likely-unnoticeable
  performance regressions if you use Ruby 2.1 or earlier.  Going
  forward, unicorn will favor the latest version (currently 2.2) of
  the mainline Ruby implementation, potentially sacrificing
  performance on older Rubies.

* Some internal, undocumented features and APIs used by
  derivative servers are gone; removing bloat and slightly lowering
  memory use.  We have never and will never endorse the use of any
  applications or middleware with a dependency on unicorn,
  applications should be written for Rack instead.
  Note: Rainbows! 5.0 will be released next week or so to be
  compatible with unicorn 5.x

New features:

* sd_listen_fds(3) emulation added for systemd compatibility.
  You may now stop using PID files and other process monitoring
  software when using systemd.

* Newly-set TCP socket options are now applied to inherited sockets.

* Dynamic changes in the application to Rack::Utils::HTTP_STATUS
  hash is now supported; allowing users to set custom status lines
  in Rack to be reflected in unicorn.  This feature causes a minor
  performance regression, but is made up for Ruby 2.2 users with
  other optimizations.

* The monotonic clock is used under Ruby 2.1+, making the
  timeout feature immune to system clock changes.

As unicorn may be used anonymously without registration, the
project is committed to supporting anonymous and pseudonymous
help requests, contributions and feedback via plain-text mail to:

    unicorn-public@bogomips.org

The mail submission port (587) is open to those behind firewalls
and allows access via Tor and anonymous remailers.
Archives are accessible via: http://bogomips.org/unicorn-public/
and mirrored to various other places, so you do not need to use
a valid address when posting.

Finally, rest assured the core design of unicorn will never change.
It will never use new-fangled things like threads, kqueue or epoll;
but will always remain a preforking server serving one client
per-process.

[1] http://mid.gmane.org/20090211230457.GB22926@dcvr.yhbt.net
[2] this would've been like, totally gnarly in the 80s!

unicorn 5.0.0.pre2 - another prerelease! / 2015-07-06 21:37 UTC

There is a minor TCP socket options are now applied to inherited
sockets, and we have native support for inheriting sockets from
systemd (by emulating the sd_listen_fds(3) function).

Dynamic changes in the application to Rack::Utils::HTTP_STATUS
codes is now supported, so you can use your own custom status
lines.

Ruby 2.2 and later is now favored for performance.
Optimizations by using constants which made sense in earlier
versions of Ruby are gone: so users of old Ruby versions
will see performance regressions.  Ruby 2.2 users should
see the same or better performance, and we have less code
as a result.

* doc: update some invalid URLs
* apply TCP socket options on inherited sockets
* reflect changes in Rack::Utils::HTTP_STATUS_CODES
* reduce constants and optimize for Ruby 2.2
* http_response: reduce size of multi-line header path
* emulate sd_listen_fds for systemd support
* test/unit/test_response.rb: compatibility with older test-unit

This also includes all changes in unicorn 5.0.0.pre1:

http://bogomips.org/unicorn-public/m/20150615225652.GA16164@dcvr.yhbt.net.html

unicorn 5.0.0.pre1 - incompatible changes! / 2015-06-15 22:49 UTC

This release finally drops Ruby 1.8 support and requires Ruby 1.9.3
or later.  The horrible "Status:" header in our HTTP response is
finally gone, saving at least 16 precious bytes in every single HTTP
response.

Under Ruby 2.1 and later, the monotonic clock is used for timeout
handling for better accuracy.

Several experimental, unused and undocumented features are removed.

There's also tiny, minor performance and memory improvements from
dropping 1.8 compatibility, but probably nothing noticeable on a
typical real-life (bloated) app.

The biggest performance improvement we made was to our website by
switching to olddoc.  Depending on connection speed, latency, and
renderer performance, it typically loads two to four times faster.

Finally, for the billionth time: unicorn must never be exposed
to slow clients, as it will never ever use new-fangled things
like non-blocking socket I/O, threads, epoll or kqueue.  unicorn
must be used with a fully-buffering reverse proxy such as nginx
for slow clients.

* ISSUES: update with mailing list subscription
* GIT-VERSION-GEN: start 5.0.0 development
* http: remove xftrust options
* FAQ: add entry for Rails autoflush_log
* dev: remove isolate dependency
* unicorn.gemspec: depend on test-unit 3.0
* http_response: remove Status: header
* remove RubyForge and Freecode references
* remove mongrel.rubyforge.org references
* http: remove the keepalive requests limit
* http: reduce parser from 72 to 56 bytes on 64-bit
* examples: add run_once to before_fork hook example
* worker: remove old tmp accessor
* http_server: save 450+ bytes of memory on x86-64
* t/t0002-parser-error.sh: relax test for rack 1.6.0
* remove SSL support
* tmpio: drop the "size" method
* switch docs + website to olddoc
* README: clarify/reduce references to unicorn_rails
* gemspec: fixup olddoc migration
* use the monotonic clock under Ruby 2.1+
* http: -Wshorten-64-to-32 warnings on clang
* remove old inetd+git examples and exec_cgi
* http: standalone require + reduction in binary size
* GNUmakefile: fix clean gem build + reduce build cruft
* socket_helper: reduce constant lookups and caching
* remove 1.8, <= 1.9.1 fallback for missing IO#autoclose=
* favor IO#close_on_exec= over fcntl in 1.9+
* use require_relative to reduce syscalls at startup
* doc: update support status for Ruby versions
* fix uninstalled testing and reduce require paths
* test_socket_helper: do not depend on SO_REUSEPORT
* favor "a.b(&:c)" form over "a.b { |x| x.c }"
* ISSUES: add section for bugs in other projects
* http_server: favor ivars over constants
* explain 11 byte magic number for self-pipe
* const: drop constants used by Rainbows!
* reduce and localize constant string use
* Links: mark Rainbows! as historical, reference yahns
* save about 200 bytes of memory on x86-64
* http: remove deprecated reset method
* http: remove experimental dechunk! method
* socket_helper: update comments
* doc: document UNICORN_FD in manpage
* doc: document Etc.nprocessors for worker_processes
* favor more string literals for cold call sites
* tee_input: support for Rack::TempfileReaper middleware
* support TempfileReaper in deployment and development envs
* favor kgio_wait_readable for single FD over select
* Merge tag 'v4.9.0'
* http_request: support rack.hijack by default
* avoid extra allocation for hijack proc creation
* FAQ: add note about ECONNRESET errors from bodies
* process SIGWINCH unless stdin is a TTY
* ISSUES: discourage HTML mail strongly, welcome nyms
* http: use rb_hash_clear in Ruby 2.0+
* http_response: avoid special-casing for Rack < 1.5
* www: install NEWS.atom.xml properly
* http_server: remove a few more accessors and constants
* http_response: simplify regular expression
* move the socket into Rack env for hijacking
* http: move response_start_sent into the C ext
* FAQ: reorder bit on Rack 1.1.x and Rails 2.3.x
* ensure body is closed during hijack

unicorn 4.9.0 - TempfileReaper support in Rack 1.6 / 2015-04-24 03:09 UTC

This release supports the Rack::TempfileReaper middleware found
in rack 1.6 for cleaning up disk space used by temporary files.
We also use Rack::TempfileReaper for cleaning up large temporary
files buffered with TeeInput.  Users on rack 1.5 and earlier
will see no changes.

There's also a bunch of documentation/build system improvements.

This is likely to be the last Ruby 1.8-compatible release,
unicorn 5.x will require 1.9.3 or later as well as dropping lots
of cruft (the stupid "Status:" header in responses being the
most notable).

21 changes backported from master:

      ISSUES: update with mailing list subscription
      FAQ: add entry for Rails autoflush_log
      dev: remove isolate dependency
      unicorn.gemspec: depend on test-unit 3.0
      remove RubyForge and Freecode references
      remove mongrel.rubyforge.org references
      examples: add run_once to before_fork hook example
      t/t0002-parser-error.sh: relax test for rack 1.6.0
      switch docs + website to olddoc
      README: clarify/reduce references to unicorn_rails
      gemspec: fixup olddoc migration
      GNUmakefile: fix clean gem build + reduce build cruft
      doc: update support status for Ruby versions
      fix uninstalled testing and reduce require paths
      test_socket_helper: do not depend on SO_REUSEPORT
      ISSUES: add section for bugs in other projects
      explain 11 byte magic number for self-pipe
      Links: mark Rainbows! as historical, reference yahns
      doc: document UNICORN_FD in manpage
      tee_input: support for Rack::TempfileReaper middleware
      support TempfileReaper in deployment and development envs

unicorn 4.8.3 - the end of an era / 2014-05-07 07:50 UTC

This release updates documentation to reflect the migration of the
mailing list to a new public-inbox[1] instance.  This is necessary
due to the impending RubyForge shutdown on May 15, 2014.

The public-inbox address is: unicorn-public@bogomips.org
    (no subscription required, plain text only)
ssoma[2] git archives: git://bogomips.org/unicorn-public
browser-friendly archives: http://bogomips.org/unicorn-public/

Using, getting help for, and contributing to unicorn will never
require any of the following:

1) non-Free software (including SaaS)
2) registration or sign-in of any kind
3) a real identity (we accept mail from Mixmaster)
4) a graphical user interface

Nowadays, plain-text email is the only ubiquitous platform which
meets all our requirements for communication.

There is also one small bugfix to handle premature grandparent death
upon initial startup.  Most users are unaffected.

[1] policy: http://public-inbox.org/ - git://80x24.org/public-inbox
    an "archives first" approach to mailing lists
[2] mechanism: http://ssoma.public-inbox.org/ - git://80x24.org/ssoma
    some sort of mail archiver (using git)

unicorn 4.8.2 - avoid race condition during worker startup / 2014-02-05 18:24 UTC

We close SELF_PIPE in the worker immediately, but signal handlers
do not get setup immediately.  So prevent workers from erroring out
due to invalid SELF_PIPE.

unicorn 4.8.1 / 2014-01-29 08:48 UTC

fix races/error handling in worker SIGQUIT handler

This protects us from two problems:

1) we (or our app) somehow called IO#close on one of the sockets
   we listen on without removing it from the readers array.
   We'll ignore IOErrors from IO#close and assume we wanted to
   close it.

2) our SIGQUIT handler is interrupted by itself.  This can happen as
   a fake signal from the master could be handled and a real signal
   from an outside user is sent to us (e.g. from unicorn-worker-killer)
   or if a user uses the killall(1) command.

unicorn 4.8.0 - big internal changes, but compatible / 2014-01-11 07:34 UTC

This release contains fairly major internal workings of master-to-worker
notifications.  The master process no longer sends signals to workers
for most tasks.  This works around some compatibility issues with some
versions of the "pg" gem (and potentially any other code which may not
handle EINTR properly).  One extra benefit is it also helps stray
workers notice a rare, unexpected master death more easily.  Workers
continue to (and will always) accept existing signals for compatibility
with tools/scripts which may signal workers.

PID file are always written early (even on upgrade) again to avoid
breaking strange monitoring setups which use PID files.  Keep in mind we
have always discouraged monitoring based on PID files as they are
fragile.

We now avoid bubbling IOError to the Rack app on premature client
disconnects when streaming the input body.  This is usually not a
problem with nginx, but may be on some LAN setups without nginx).

Thanks to Sam Saffron, Jimmy Soho, Rodrigo Rosenfeld Rosas,
Michael Fischer, and Andrew Hobson for their help with this release.

Note: the unicorn mailing list will be moved/changed soon due to the
RubyForge shutdown.  unicorn will always rely only on Free Software.
There will never be any sign-up requirements nor terms-of-service to
agree to when communicating with us.

unicorn 4.8.0pre1 / 2013-12-09 09:51 UTC

Eric Wong (6):
      tests: fix SO_REUSEPORT tests for old Linux and non-Linux
      stream_input: avoid IO#close on client disconnect
      t0300: kill off stray processes in test
      always write PID file early for compatibility
      doc: clarify SIGNALS and reference init example
      rework master-to-worker signaling to use a pipe

unicorn 4.7.0 - minor updates, license tweak / 2013-11-04 06:59 UTC

* support SO_REUSEPORT on new listeners (:reuseport)

This allows users to start an independent instance of unicorn on
a the same port as a running unicorn (as long as both instances
use :reuseport).

ref: https://lwn.net/Articles/542629/

* unicorn is now GPLv2-or-later and Ruby 1.8-licensed
(instead of GPLv2-only, GPLv3-only, and Ruby 1.8-licensed)

This changes nothing at the moment.  Once the FSF publishes the next
version of the GPL, users may choose the newer GPL version without the
unicorn BDFL approving it.  Two years ago when I got permission to add
GPLv3 to the license options, I also got permission from all past
contributors to approve future versions of the GPL.  So now I'm
approving all future versions of the GPL for use with unicorn.

Reasoning below:

In case the GPLv4 arrives and I am not alive to approve/review it,
the lesser of evils is have give blanket approval of all future GPL
versions (as published by the FSF).  The worse evil is to be stuck
with a license which cannot guarantee the Free-ness of this project
in the future.

This unfortunately means the FSF can theoretically come out with
license terms I do not agree with, but the GPLv2 and GPLv3 will
always be an option to all users.

Note: we currently prefer GPLv3

Two improvements thanks to Ernest W. Durbin III:

* USR2 redirects fixed for Ruby 1.8.6 (broken since 4.1.0)
* unicorn(1) and unicorn_rails(1) enforces valid integer for -p/--port

A few more odd, minor tweaks and fixes:

* attempt to rename PID file when possible (on USR2)
* workaround reopen atomicity issues for stdio vs non-stdio
* improve handling of client-triggerable socket errors

unicorn 4.6.3 - fix --no-default-middleware option / 2013-06-21 08:01 UTC

Thanks to Micah Chalmer for this fix.  There are also minor
documentation updates and internal cleanups.

unicorn 4.6.2 - HTTP parser fix for Rainbows! / 2013-02-26 02:59 UTC

This release fixes a bug in Unicorn::HttpParser#filter_body
which affected some configurations of Rainbows!  There is
also a minor size reduction in the DSO.

unicorn 4.6.1 - minor cleanups / 2013-02-21 08:38 UTC

Unicorn::Const::UNICORN_VERSION is now auto-generated from
GIT-VERSION-GEN and always correct.  Minor cleanups for
hijacking.

unicorn 4.6.0 - hijacking support / 2013-02-06 11:23 UTC

This pre-release adds hijacking support for Rack 1.5 users.
See Rack documentation for more information about hijacking.
There is also a new --no-default-middleware/-N option
for the `unicorn' command to ignore RACK_ENV within unicorn
thanks to Lin Jen-Shin.

There are only documentation and test-portability updates
since 4.6.0pre1, no code changes.

unicorn 4.6.0pre1 - hijacking support / 2013-01-29 21:05 UTC

This pre-release adds hijacking support for Rack 1.5 users.
See Rack documentation for more information about hijacking.
There is also a new --no-default-middleware/-N option
for the `unicorn' command to ignore RACK_ENV within unicorn.

unicorn 4.5.0 - check_client_connection option / 2012-12-07 22:59 UTC

The new check_client_connection option allows unicorn to detect
most disconnected local clients before potentially expensive
application processing begins.

This feature is useful for applications experiencing spikes of
traffic leading to undesirable queue times, as clients will
disconnect (and perhaps even retry, compounding the problem)
before unicorn can even start processing the request.

To enable this feature, add the following line to a unicorn
config file:

      check_client_connection true

This feature only works when nginx (or any other HTTP/1.0+
client) is on the same machine as unicorn.

A huge thanks to Tom Burns for implementing and testing this
change in production with real traffic (including mitigating
an unexpected DoS attack).

ref: http://mid.gmane.org/CAK4qKG3rkfVYLyeqEqQyuNEh_nZ8yw0X_cwTxJfJ+TOU+y8F+w@mail.gmail.com

This release fixes broken Rainbows! compatibility in 4.5.0pre1.

unicorn 4.5.0pre1 - check_client_connection option / 2012-11-29 23:48 UTC

The new check_client_connection option allows unicorn to detect
most disconnected clients before potentially expensive
application processing begins.

This feature is useful for applications experiencing spikes of
traffic leading to undesirable queue times, as clients will
disconnect (and perhaps even retry, compounding the problem)
before unicorn can even start processing the request.

To enable this feature, add the following line to a unicorn
config file:

  check_client_connection true

A huge thanks to Tom Burns for implementing and testing this
change in production with real traffic (including mitigating
an unexpected DoS attack).

unicorn 4.4.0 - minor updates / 2012-10-11 09:11 UTC

Non-regular files are no longer reopened on SIGUSR1.  This
allows users to specify FIFOs as log destinations.

TCP_NOPUSH/TCP_CORK is no longer set/unset by default.  Use
:tcp_nopush explicitly with the "listen" directive if you wish
to enable TCP_NOPUSH/TCP_CORK.

Listen sockets are now bound _after_ loading the application for
preload_app(true) users.  This prevents load balancers from
sending traffic to an application server while the application
is still loading.

There are also minor test suite cleanups.

unicorn 4.3.1 - shutdown() fixes / 2012-04-29 07:04 UTC

* Call shutdown(2) if a client EOFs on us during upload.
  We can avoid holding a socket open if the Rack app forked a
  process during uploads.

* ignore potential Errno::ENOTCONN errors (from shutdown(2)).
  Even on LANs, connections can occasionally be accept()-ed but
  be unusable afterwards.

Thanks to Joel Nimety <jnimety@continuity.net>,
Matt Smith <matt@nearapogee.com> and George <lists@southernohio.net>
on the mongrel-unicorn@rubyforge.org mailing list for their
feedback and testing for this release.

unicorn 4.3.0 - minor fixes and updates / 2012-04-17 21:51 UTC

* PATH_INFO (aka REQUEST_PATH) increased to 4096 (from 1024).
  This allows requests with longer path components and matches
  the system PATH_MAX value common to GNU/Linux systems for
  serving filesystem components with long names.

* Apps that fork() (but do not exec()) internally for background
  tasks now indicate the end-of-request immediately after
  writing the Rack response.

Thanks to Hongli Lai, Lawrence Pit, Patrick Wenger and Nuo Yan
for their valuable feedback for this release.

unicorn 4.2.1 - minor fix and doc updates / 2012-03-26 21:39 UTC

* Stale pid files are detected if a pid is recycled by processes
  belonging to another user, thanks to Graham Bleach.
* nginx example config updates thanks to to Eike Herzbach.
* KNOWN_ISSUES now documents issues with apps/libs that install
  conflicting signal handlers.

unicorn 4.2.0 / 2012-01-28 09:18 UTC

The GPLv3 is now an option to the Unicorn license.  The existing GPLv2
and Ruby-only terms will always remain options, but the GPLv3 is
preferred.

Daemonization is correctly detected on all terminals for development
use (Brian P O'Rourke).

Unicorn::OobGC respects applications that disable GC entirely
during application dispatch (Yuichi Tateno).

Many test fixes for OpenBSD, which may help other *BSDs, too.
(Jeremy Evans).

There is now _optional_ SSL support (via the "kgio-monkey"
RubyGem).  On fast, secure LANs, SSL is only intended for
detecting data corruption that weak TCP checksums cannot detect.
Our SSL support is remains unaudited by security experts.

There are also some minor bugfixes and documentation
improvements.

Ruby 2.0.0dev also has a copy-on-write friendly GC which can save memory
when combined with "preload_app true", so if you're in the mood, start
testing Unicorn with the latest Ruby!

unicorn 4.1.1 - fix last-resort timeout accuracy / 2011-08-25 21:30 UTC

The last-resort timeout mechanism was inaccurate and often
delayed in activation since the 2.0.0 release.  It is now fixed
and remains power-efficient in idle situations, especially with
the wakeup reduction in MRI 1.9.3+.

There is also a new document on application timeouts
intended to discourage the reliance on this last-resort
mechanism.  It is visible on the web at:

  http://unicorn.bogomips.org/Application_Timeouts.html

unicorn 4.1.0 - small updates and fixes / 2011-08-20 00:33 UTC

* Rack::Chunked and Rack::ContentLength middlewares are loaded
  by default for RACK_ENV=(development|deployment) users to match
  Rack::Server behavior.  As before, use RACK_ENV=none if you want
  fine-grained control of your middleware.  This should also
  help users of Rainbows! and Zbatery.

* CTL characters are now rejected from HTTP header values

* Exception messages are now filtered for [:cntrl:] characters
  since application/middleware authors may forget to do so

* Workers will now terminate properly if a SIGQUIT/SIGTERM/SIGINT
  is received while during worker process initialization.

* close-on-exec is explicitly disabled to future-proof against
  Ruby 2.0 changes [ruby-core:38140]

unicorn 4.0.1 - regression bugfixes / 2011-06-29 18:59 UTC

This release fixes things for users of per-worker "listen"
directives in the after_fork hook.  Thanks to ghazel@gmail.com
for reporting the bug.

The "timeout" configurator directive is now truncated to
0x7ffffffe seconds to prevent overflow when calling
IO.select.

unicorn 4.0.0 - for mythical hardware! / 2011-06-27 09:05 UTC

A single Unicorn instance may manage more than 1024 workers
without needing privileges to modify resource limits.  As a
result of this, the "raindrops"[1] gem/library is now a required
dependency.

TCP socket defaults now favor low latency to mimic UNIX domain
socket behavior (tcp_nodelay: true, tcp_nopush: false).  This
hurts throughput, users who want to favor throughput should
specify "tcp_nodelay: false, tcp_nopush: true" in the listen
directive.

Error logging is more consistent and all lines should be
formatted correctly in backtraces.  This may break the
behavior of some log parsers.

The call stack is smaller and thus easier to examine backtraces
when debugging Rack applications.

There are some internal API changes and cleanups, but none that
affect applications designed for Rack.  See "git log v3.7.0.."
for details.

For users who cannot install kgio[2] or raindrops, Unicorn 1.1.x
remains supported indefinitely.  Unicorn 3.x will remain
supported if there is demand.  We expect raindrops to introduce
fewer portability problems than kgio did, however.

[1] http://raindrops.bogomips.org/
[2] http://bogomips.org/kgio/

unicorn 3.7.0 - minor feature update / 2011-06-09 20:51 UTC

* miscellaneous documentation improvements
* return 414 (instead of 400) for Request-URI Too Long
* strip leading and trailing linear whitespace in header values

User-visible improvements meant for Rainbows! users:

* add :ipv6only "listen" option (same as nginx)

unicorn 3.6.2 - fix Unicorn::OobGC module / 2011-04-30 06:40 UTC

The optional Unicorn::OobGC module is reimplemented to fix
breakage that appeared in v3.3.1.  There are also minor
documentation updates, but no code changes as of 3.6.1 for
non-OobGC users.

There is also a v1.1.7 release to fix the same OobGC breakage
that appeared for 1.1.x users in the v1.1.6 release.

unicorn 1.1.7 - major fixes to minor components / 2011-04-30 06:33 UTC

No changes to the core code, so this release only affects users
of the Unicorn::OobGC and Unicorn::ExecCGI modules.
Unicorn::OobGC was totally broken by the fix in the v1.1.6
release and is now reimplemented.  Unicorn::ExecCGI (which
hardly anybody uses) now returns proper HTTP status codes.

unicorn 3.6.1 - fix OpenSSL PRNG workaround / 2011-04-26 23:06 UTC

Our attempt in 3.6.0 to workaround a problem with the OpenSSL
PRNG actually made the problem worse.  This release corrects the
workaround to properly reseed the OpenSSL PRNG after forking.

unicorn 3.6.0 - small fixes, PRNG workarounds / 2011-04-21 06:46 UTC

Mainly small fixes, improvements, and workarounds for fork() issues
with pseudo-random number generators shipped with Ruby (Kernel#rand,
OpenSSL::Random (used by SecureRandom and also by Rails).

The PRNG issues are documented in depth here (and links to Ruby Redmine):

  http://bogomips.org/unicorn.git/commit?id=1107ede7
  http://bogomips.org/unicorn.git/commit?id=b3241621

If you're too lazy to upgrade, you can just do this in your after_fork
hooks:

  after_fork do |server,worker|
    tmp = srand
    OpenSSL::Random.seed(tmp.to_s) if defined?(OpenSSL::Random)
  end

There are also small log reopening (SIGUSR1) improvements:

* relative paths may also be reopened, there's a small chance this
  will break with a handful of setups, but unlikely.  This should
  make configuration easier especially since the "working_directory"
  configurator directive exists.  Brought up by Matthew Kocher:
  http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.lang.ruby.unicorn.general/900

* workers will just die (and restart) if log reopening fails for
  any reason (including user error).  This is to workaround the issue
  reported by Emmanuel Gomez:
  http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.lang.ruby.unicorn.general/906

unicorn 3.5.0 - very minor improvements / 2011-03-15 12:27 UTC

A small set of small changes but it's been more than a month
since our last release.  There are minor memory usage and
efficiently improvements (for graceful shutdowns).  MRI 1.8.7
users on *BSD should be sure they're using the latest patchlevel
(or upgrade to 1.9.x) because we no longer workaround their
broken stdio (that's MRI's job :)

unicorn 3.4.0 - for people with very big LANs / 2011-02-04 21:23 UTC

* IPv6 support in the HTTP hostname parser and configuration
  language.  Configurator syntax for "listen" addresses should
  be the same as nginx.  Even though we support IPv6, we will
  never support non-LAN/localhost clients connecting to Unicorn.

* TCP_NOPUSH/TCP_CORK is enabled by default to optimize
  for bandwidth usage and avoid unnecessary wakeups in nginx.

* Updated KNOWN_ISSUES document for bugs in recent Ruby 1.8.7
  (RNG needs reset after fork) and nginx+sendfile()+FreeBSD 8.

* examples/nginx.conf updated for modern stable versions of nginx.

* "Status" in headers no longer ignored in the response,
  Rack::Lint already enforces this so we don't duplicate
  the work.

* All tests pass under Ruby 1.9.3dev

* various bugfixes in the (mostly unused) ExecCGI class that
  powers http://bogomips.org/unicorn.git

unicorn 3.3.1 - one minor, esoteric bugfix / 2011-01-06 23:48 UTC

We now close the client socket after closing the response body.
This does not affect most applications that run under Unicorn,
in fact, it may not affect any.

There is also a new v1.1.6 release for users who do not use
kgio.

unicorn 1.1.6 - one minor, esoteric bugfix / 2011-01-06 23:46 UTC

We now close the client socket after closing the response body.
This does not affect most applications that run under Unicorn,
in fact, it may not affect any.

unicorn 3.3.0 - minor optimizations / 2011-01-05 23:43 UTC

Certain applications that already serve hundreds/thousands of requests a
second should experience performance improvements due to
Time.now.httpdate usage being removed and reimplemented in C.

There are also minor internal changes and cleanups for Rainbows!

unicorn 3.2.1 - parser improvements for Rainbows! / 2010-12-26 08:04 UTC

There are numerous improvements in the HTTP parser for
Rainbows!, none of which affect Unicorn-only users.

The kgio dependency is incremented to 2.1: this should avoid
ENOSYS errors for folks building binaries on newer Linux
kernels and then deploying to older ones.

There are also minor documentation improvements, the website
is now JavaScript-free!

(Ignore the 3.2.0 release, I fat-fingered some packaging things)

unicorn 3.2.0 - parser improvements for Rainbows! / 2010-12-26 07:50 UTC

There are numerous improvements in the HTTP parser for
Rainbows!, none of which affect Unicorn-only users.

The kgio dependency is incremented to 2.1: this should avoid
ENOSYS errors for folks building binaries on newer Linux
kernels and then deploying to older ones.

There are also minor documentation improvements, the website
is now JavaScript-free!

unicorn 3.1.0 - client_buffer_body_size tuning / 2010-12-09 22:28 UTC

This release enables tuning the client_buffer_body_size to raise
or lower the threshold for buffering request bodies to disk.
This only applies to users who have not disabled rewindable
input.  There is also a TeeInput bugfix for uncommon usage
patterns and Configurator examples in the FAQ should be fixed

unicorn 3.0.1 - one bugfix for Rainbows! / 2010-12-03 00:34 UTC

...and only Rainbows!  This release fixes HTTP pipelining for
requests with bodies for users of synchronous Rainbows!
concurrency models.

Since Unicorn itself does not support keepalive nor pipelining,
Unicorn-only users need not upgrade.

unicorn 3.0.0 - disable rewindable input! / 2010-11-20 02:41 UTC

Rewindable "rack.input" may be disabled via the
"rewindable_input false" directive in the configuration file.
This will violate Rack::Lint for Rack 1.x applications, but can
reduce I/O for applications that do not need a rewindable
input.

This release updates us to the Kgio 2.x series which should play
more nicely with other libraries and applications.  There are
also internal cleanups and improvements for future versions of
Rainbows!

The Unicorn 3.x series supercedes the 2.x series
while the 1.x series will remain supported indefinitely.

unicorn 3.0.0pre2 - less bad than 2.x or 3.0.0pre1! / 2010-11-19 00:07 UTC

This release updates us to the Kgio 2.x series which should play
more nicely with other applications.  There are also bugfixes
from the 2.0.1 release and a small bugfix to the new StreamInput
class.

The Unicorn 3.x series will supercede the 2.x series
while the 1.x series will remain supported indefinitely.

unicorn 2.0.1 - fix errors in error handling / 2010-11-17 23:48 UTC

This release fixes errors in our own error handling,
causing certain errors to not be logged nor responded
to correctly.

Eric Wong (3):
      t0012: fix race condition in reload
      http_server: fix HttpParserError constant resolution
      tests: add parser error test from Rainbows!

unicorn 3.0.0pre1 / 2010-11-17 00:04 UTC

Rewindable "rack.input" may be disabled via the
"rewindable_input false" directive in the configuration file.
This will violate Rack::Lint for Rack 1.x applications, but
can reduce I/O for applications that do not need it.

There are also internal cleanups and enhancements for future
versions of Rainbows!

Eric Wong (11):
      t0012: fix race condition in reload
      enable HTTP keepalive support for all methods
      http_parser: add HttpParser#next? method
      tee_input: switch to simpler API for parsing trailers
      switch versions to 3.0.0pre
      add stream_input class and build tee_input on it
      configurator: enable "rewindable_input" directive
      http_parser: ensure keepalive is disabled when reset
      *_input: make life easier for subclasses/modules
      tee_input: restore read position after #size
      preread_input: no-op for non-rewindable "rack.input"

unicorn 2.0.0 - mostly internal cleanups / 2010-10-27 23:44 UTC

Despite the version number, this release mostly features
internal cleanups for future versions of Rainbows!.  User
visible changes include reductions in CPU wakeups on idle sites
using high timeouts.

Barring possible portability issues due to the introduction of
the kgio library, this release should be ready for all to use.
However, 1.1.x (and possibly 1.0.x) will continue to be
maintained.  Unicorn 1.1.5 and 1.0.2 have also been released
with bugfixes found during development of 2.0.0.

unicorn 1.1.5 / 2010-10-27 23:30 UTC

This maintenance release fixes several long-standing but
recently-noticed bugs.  SIGHUP reloading now correctly restores
default values if they're erased or commented-out in the Unicorn
configuration file.  Delays/slowdowns in signal handling since
0.990 are fixed, too.

unicorn 1.0.2 / 2010-10-27 23:12 UTC

This is the latest maintenance release of the 1.0.x series.
All users are encouraged to upgrade to 1.1.x stable series
and report bugs there.

Shortlog of changes since 1.0.1:

Eric Wong (8):
      SIGTTIN works after SIGWINCH
      fix delays in signal handling
      Rakefile: don't post freshmeat on empty changelogs
      Rakefile: capture prerelease tags
      configurator: use "__send__" instead of "send"
      configurator: reloading with unset values restores default
      gemspec: depend on Isolate 3.0.0 for dev
      doc: stop using deprecated rdoc CLI options

unicorn 2.0.0pre3 - more small fixes / 2010-10-09 00:06 UTC

There is a new Unicorn::PrereadInput middleware to which allows
input bodies to be drained off the socket and buffered to disk
(or memory) before dispatching the application.

HTTP Pipelining behavior is fixed for Rainbows!  There
are some small Kgio fixes and updates for Rainbows!
users as well.

unicorn 2.0.0pre2 - releases are cheap / 2010-10-07 07:23 UTC

Internal changes/cleanups for Rainbows!

unicorn 2.0.0pre1 - a boring "major" release / 2010-10-06 01:17 UTC

Mostly internal cleanups for future versions of Rainbows! and
people trying out Rubinius.  There are tiny performance
improvements for Ruby 1.9.2 users which may only be noticeable
with Rainbows!.

There is a new dependency on the "kgio" library for kinder,
gentler I/O :)  Please report any bugs and portability issues
with kgio to the Unicorn mailing list[1].

Unicorn 1.1.x users are NOT required nor even encouraged to
upgrade yet.  Unicorn 1.1.x will be maintained for the
forseeable future.

[1] - mongrel-unicorn@rubyforge.org

unicorn 1.1.4 - small bug fix and doc updates / 2010-10-04 20:32 UTC

We no longer unlinking actively listening sockets upon startup
(but continue to unlink dead ones).  This bug could trigger
downtime and nginx failures if a user makes an error and
attempts to start Unicorn while it is already running.

Thanks to Jordan Ritter for the detailed bug report leading to
this fix.

ref: http://mid.gmane.org/8D95A44B-A098-43BE-B532-7D74BD957F31@darkridge.com

There are also minor documentation and test updates pulled in
from master.  This is hopefully the last bugfix release of the
1.1.x series.

unicorn 1.1.3 - small bug fixes / 2010-08-28 19:27 UTC

This release fixes race conditions during SIGUSR1 log cycling.
This bug mainly affects Rainbows! users serving static files,
but some Rack apps use threads internally even under Unicorn.

Other small fixes:
* SIGTTIN works as documented after SIGWINCH
* --help output from `unicorn` and `unicorn_rails` is more consistent

unicorn 1.1.2 - fixing upgrade rollbacks / 2010-07-13 20:04 UTC

This release is fixes a long-standing bug where the original PID
file is not restored when rolling back from a USR2 upgrade.
Presumably most upgrades aren't rolled back, so it took over a
year to notice this issue.  Thanks to Lawrence Pit for
discovering and reporting this issue.

unicorn 1.0.1 - bugfixes only / 2010-07-13 20:01 UTC

The first maintenance release of 1.0.x, this release is
primarily to fix a long-standing bug where the original PID file
is not restored when rolling back from a USR2 upgrade.
Presumably most upgrades aren't rolled back, so it took over a
year to notice this issue.  Thanks to Lawrence Pit for
discovering and reporting this issue.

There is also a pedantic TeeInput bugfix which shouldn't affect
real apps from the 1.1.x series and a test case fix for OSX,
too.

unicorn 1.1.1 - fixing cleanups gone bad :x / 2010-07-11 02:13 UTC

Unicorn::TeeInput constant resolution for Unicorn::ClientError
got broken simplifying code for RDoc.  This affects users
of Rainbows! and Zbatery.

unicorn 1.1.0 - small changes and cleanups / 2010-07-08 07:57 UTC

This is a small, incremental feature release with some internal
changes to better support upcoming versions of the Rainbows! and
Zbatery web servers.  There is no need to upgrade if you're
happy with 1.0.0, but also little danger in upgrading.

There is one pedantic bugfix which shouldn't affect anyone
and small documentation updates as well.

unicorn 1.0.0 - yes, this is a real project / 2010-06-17 09:18 UTC

There are only minor changes since 0.991.0.

For users clinging onto the past, MRI 1.8.6 support has been
restored.  Users are strongly encouraged to upgrade to the
latest 1.8.7, REE or 1.9.1.

For users looking towards the future, the core test suite and
the Rails 3 (beta) integration tests pass entirely under 1.9.2
preview3.  As of the latest rubinius.git[1], Rubinius support is
nearly complete as well.

Under Rubinius, signals may corrupt responses as they're being
written to the socket, but that should be fixable transparently
to us[4].  Support for the hardly used, hardly documented[2]
embedded command-line switches in rackup config (.ru) files is
is also broken under Rubinius.

The recently-released Rack 1.2.1 introduced no compatiblity
issues[3] in core Unicorn.  We remain compatible with all Rack
releases starting with 0.9.1 (and possibly before).

[1] tested with Rubinius upstream commit
cf4a5a759234faa3f7d8a92d68fa89d8c5048f72
[2] lets avoid the Dueling Banjos effect here :x
[3] actually, Rack 1.2.1 is broken under 1.8.6.
[4] http://github.com/evanphx/rubinius/issues/373

unicorn 0.991.0 - startup improvements / 2010-06-11 02:18 UTC

The "working_directory" configuration parameter is now handled
before config.ru.  That means "unicorn" and "unicorn_rails" no
longer barfs when initially started outside of the configured
"working_directory" where a config.ru is required.  A huge
thanks to Pierre Baillet for catching this ugly UI inconsistency
before the big 1.0 release

Thanks to Hongli Lai, out-of-the-box Rails 3 (beta) support
should be improved for deployments lacking a config.ru

There are more new integration tests, cleanups and some
documentation improvements.

unicorn 0.990.0 - inching towards 1.0 / 2010-06-08 09:41 UTC

Thanks to Augusto Becciu for finding a bug in the HTTP parser
that caused a TypeError (and 500) when a rare client set the
"Version:" header which conflicts with the HTTP_VERSION header
we parse in the first line of the request[1].

Horizontal tabs are now allowed as leading whitespace in header
values as according to RFC 2616 as pointed out by
IƱaki Baz Castillo[2].

Taking a hint from Rack 1.1, the "logger" configuration
parameter no longer requires a "close" method.  This means some
more Logger replacements may be used.

There's a new, optional, Unicorn (and maybe Passenger)-only
middleware, Unicorn::OobGC[2] that runs GC outside of the normal
request/response cycle to help out memory-hungry applications.
Thanks to Luke Melia for being brave enough to test and report
back on my big_app_gc.rb monkey patch[3] which lead up to this.

Rails 3 (beta) support:

  Using "unicorn" is still recommended as Rails 3 comes with
  a config.ru, but "unicorn_rails" is cleaned up a bit and
  *should* work as well as "unicorn" out-of-the-box.  Feedback
  is much appreciated.

Rubinius updates:

  USR2 binary upgrades are broken due to
  {TCPServer,UNIXServer}.for_fd[5][6] being broken
  (differently).

  Repeatedly hitting the server with signals in a tight
  loop is unusual and not recommended[7].

  There are some workarounds and general code cleanups for other
  issues[8], as well but things should generally work unless you
  need USR2 upgrades.  Feedback and reports would be greatly
  appreciated as usual.

MRI support:

  All tests (except old Rails) run and pass under 1.9.2-preview3.
  1.8.7 and 1.9.1 work well as usual and will continue to be
  supported indefinitely.

Lets hope this is the last release before 1.0.  Please report
any issues on the mailing list[9] or email us privately[a].
Don't send HTML mail.

[1] - http://mid.gmane.org/AANLkTimuGgcwNAMcVZdViFWdF-UcW_RGyZAue7phUXps@mail.gmail.com
[2] - http://mid.gmane.org/i2xcc1f582e1005070651u294bd83oc73d1e0adf72373a@mail.gmail.com
[3] - http://unicorn.bogomips.org/Unicorn/OobGC.html
[4] - http://unicorn.bogomips.org/examples/big_app_gc.rb
[5] - http://github.com/evanphx/rubinius/issues/354
[6] - http://github.com/evanphx/rubinius/issues/355
[7] - http://github.com/evanphx/rubinius/issues/356
[8] - http://github.com/evanphx/rubinius/issues/347
[9] - mailto:mongrel-unicorn@rubyforge.org
[a] - mailto:unicorn@bogomips.org

unicorn 0.99.0 - simplicity wins / 2010-05-06 19:32 UTC

Starting with this release, we'll always load Rack up front at
startup.

Previously we had complicated ways to avoid loading Rack until
after the application was loaded to allow the application to
load an alternate version of Rack.  However this has proven too
error-prone to be worth supporting even though Unicorn does not
have strict requirements on currently released Rack versions.

If an app requires a different version of Rack than what Unicorn
would load by default, it is recommended they only install that
version of Rack (and no others) since Unicorn does not have any
strict requirements on currently released Rack versions.

Rails 2.3.x users should be aware of this as those versions are
not compatible with Rack 1.1.0.

If it is not possible to only have one Rack version installed
"globally", then they should either use Isolate or Bundler and
install a private version of Unicorn along with their preferred
version of Rack.  Users who install in this way are recommended
to execute the isolated/bundled version of Unicorn, instead of
what would normally be in $PATH.

Feedback/tips to mailto:mongrel-unicorn@rubyforge.org from
Isolate and Bundler users would be greatly appreciated.

unicorn 0.98.0 / 2010-05-05 00:53 UTC

Deployments that suspend or hibernate servers should no longer
have workers killed off (and restarted) upon resuming.

For Linux users of {raindrops}[http://raindrops.bogomips.org/]
(v0.2.0+) configuration is easier as raindrops can now
automatically detect the active listeners on the server
via the new Unicorn.listener_names singleton method.

For the pedantic, chunked request bodies without trailers are no
longer allowed to omit the final CRLF.  This shouldn't affect
any real and RFC-compliant clients out there.  Chunked requests
with trailers have always worked and continue to work the same
way.

The rest are mostly small internal cleanups and documentation
fixes.  See the commit logs for full details.

unicorn 0.97.1 - fix HTTP parser for Rainbows!/Zbatery / 2010-04-19 21:00 UTC

This release fixes a denial-of-service vector for derived
servers exposed directly to untrusted clients.

This bug does not affect most Unicorn deployments as Unicorn is
only supported with trusted clients (such as nginx) on a LAN.
nginx is known to reject clients that send invalid
Content-Length headers, so any deployments on a trusted LAN
and/or behind nginx are safe.

Servers affected by this bug include (but are not limited to)
Rainbows! and Zbatery.  This bug does not affect Thin nor
Mongrel, as neither got the request body filtering treatment
that the Unicorn HTTP parser got in August 2009.

The bug fixed in this release could result in a
denial-of-service as it would trigger a process-wide assertion
instead of raising an exception.  For servers such as
Rainbows!/Zbatery that serve multiple clients per worker
process, this could abort all clients connected to the
particular worker process that hit the assertion.

unicorn 0.97.0 - polishing and cleaning up / 2010-03-01 18:26 UTC

A bunch of small fixes related to startup/configuration and hot
reload issues with HUP:

* Variables in the user-generated config.ru files no longer
  risk clobbering variables used in laucher scripts.

* signal handlers are initialized before the pid file is
  dropped, so over-eager firing of init scripts won't
  mysteriously nuke a process.

* SIGHUP will return app to original state if an updated
  config.ru fails to load due to {Syntax,Load}Error.

* unicorn_rails should be Rails 3 compatible out-of-the-box
  ('unicorn' works as always, and is recommended for Rails 3)

* unicorn_rails is finally "working_directory"-aware when
  generating default temporary paths and pid file

* config.ru encoding is the application's default in 1.9,
  not forced to binary like many parts of Unicorn.

* configurator learned to handle the "user" directive outside
  of after_fork hook (which will always remain supported).

There are also various internal cleanups and possible speedups.

unicorn 0.96.1 - fix leak in Rainbows!/Zbatery / 2010-02-13 08:35 UTC

This maintenance release is intended for users of Rainbows! and
Zbatery servers (and anybody else using Unicorn::HttpParser).

This memory leak DID NOT affect Unicorn itself: Unicorn always
allocates the HttpParser once and always reuses it in every
sequential request.

This leak affects applications that repeatedly allocate a new
HTTP parser.  Thus this bug affects _all_ deployments of
Rainbows! and Zbatery.  These servers allocate a new parser for
every client connection to serve clients concurrently.

I misread the Data_Make_Struct()/Data_Wrap_Struct()
documentation and ended up passing NULL as the "free" argument
instead of -1, causing the memory to never be freed.

From README.EXT in the MRI source which I misread:
> The free argument is the function to free the pointer
> allocation.  If this is -1, the pointer will be just freed.
> The functions mark and free will be called from garbage
> collector.

unicorn 0.96.0 - Rack 1.1 bump / 2010-01-08 05:18 UTC

This release includes small changes for things allowed by Rack
1.1.  It is also now easier to detect if daemonized process
fails to start.  Manpages received some minor updates as well.

Rack 1.1 allowed us to make the following environment changes:

* "rack.logger" is now set to the "logger" specified in
  the Unicorn config file.  This defaults to a Logger
  instance pointing to $stderr.

* "rack.version" is now at [1,1].  Unicorn remains
  compatible with previous Rack versions if your app
  depends on it.

While only specified since Rack 1.1, Unicorn has always exposed
"rack.input" in binary mode (and has ridiculous integration
tests that go outside of Ruby to prove it!).

unicorn 0.95.3 / 2009-12-21 21:51 UTC

The HTTP parser now allows (but does not parse) the userinfo
component in the very rare requests that send absoluteURIs.
Thanks to Scott Chacon for reporting and submitting a test case
for this fix.

There are also minor documentation updates and tiny cleanups.

unicorn 0.95.2 / 2009-12-07 09:52 UTC

Small fixes to our HTTP parser to allows semicolons in PATH_INFO
as allowed by RFC 2396, section 3.3.  This is low impact for
existing apps as semicolons are rarely seen in URIs.  Our HTTP
parser runs properly under Rubinius 0.13.0 and 1.0.0-rc1 again
(though not yet the rest of the server since we rely heavily on
signals).

Another round of small documentation tweaks and minor cleanups.

unicorn 0.95.1 / 2009-11-21 21:13 UTC

Configuration files paths given on the command-line are no
longer expanded.  This should make configuration reloads
possible when a non-absolute path is specified for --config-file
and Unicorn was deployed to a symlink directories (as with
Capistrano).  Since deployments have always been strongly
encouraged to use absolute paths in the config file, this
change does not affect them.

This is our first gem release using gemcutter.

Eric Wong (3):
      SIGNALS: HUP + preload_app cannot reload app code
      Do not expand paths given on the shell
      GNUmakefile: prep release process for gemcutter

unicorn 0.95.0 / 2009-11-15 22:21 UTC

Mostly internal cleanups and documentation updates.  Irrelevant
stacktraces from client disconnects/errors while reading
"rack.input" are now cleared to avoid unnecessary noise.  If
user switching in workers is used, ownership of logs is now
preserved when reopening worker logs (send USR1 only to the the
master in this case).  The timeout config no longer affects long
after_fork hooks or application startups.

New features include the addition of the :umask option for the
"listen" config directive and error reporting for non-portable
socket options.

No ponies have ever been harmed in our development.

Eric Wong (28):
      unicorn.1: document RACK_ENV changes in 0.94.0
      HACKING: update with "gmake" in examples
      don't nuke children for long after_fork and app loads
      local.mk.sample: steal some updates from Rainbows!
      Load Unicorn constants when building app
      tee_input: fix RDoc argument definition for tee
      Add FAQ
      FAQ: fix links to Configurator docs
      tee_input: better premature disconnect handling
      tee_input: don't shadow struct members
      raise Unicorn::ClientShutdown if client aborts in TeeInput
      tee_input: fix comment from an intermediate commit
      FAQ: additional notes on getting HTTPS redirects right
      configurator: update RDoc and comments in examples
      bump version to 0.95.0pre
      configurator: listen :umask parameter for UNIX sockets
      preserve user/group ownership when reopening logs
      old_rails/static: avoid freezing strings
      old_rails: autoload Static
      const: no need to freeze HTTP_EXPECT
      test_server: ensure stderr is written to before reading
      tee_input: expand client error handling
      replace "rescue => e" with "rescue Object => e"
      socket_helper: do not hide errors when setting socket options
      socket_helper: RDoc for constants
      ClientShutdown: RDoc
      Rakefile: add raa_update task
      tee_input: client_error always raises

unicorn 0.94.0 / 2009-11-05 09:52 UTC

The HTTP parser is fix for oddly-aligned reads of trailers (this
technically affects headers, too, but is highly unlikely due to
our non-support of slow clients).  This allows our HTTP parser
to better support very slow clients when used by other servers
(like Rainbows!).  Fortunately this bug does not appear to lead
to any invalid memory accesses (and potential arbitrary code
execution).

FreeBSD (and possibly other *BSDs) support is improved and and
all the test cases pass under FreeBSD 7.2.  Various flavors of
GNU/Linux remains our primary platform for development and
production.

New features added include the "working_directory" directive in
the configurator .  Even without specifying a
"working_directory", symlink-aware detection of the current path
no longer depends on /bin/sh so it should work out-of-the-box on
FreeBSD and Solaris and not just systems where /bin/sh is dash,
ksh93 or bash.

User-switching support is finally supported but only intended
for use in the after_fork hook of worker processes.  Putting it
in the after_fork hook allows allows users to set things like
CPU affinity[1] on a per-worker basis before dropping
privileges.  The master process retains all privileges it
started with.

The ENV["RACK_ENV"] (process-wide) environment variable is now
both read and set for `unicorn' in the same way RAILS_ENV is
used by `unicorn_rails'.  This allows the Merb launcher to read
ENV["RACK_ENV"] in config.ru.  Other web servers already set
this and there may be applications or libraries that already
rely on this de facto standard.

Eric Wong (26):
      cleanup: avoid redundant error checks for fstat
      test_helper: connect(2) may fail with EINVAL
      GNUmakefile: fix non-portable tar(1) usage
      tests: provide a pure Ruby setsid(8) equivalent
      more portable symlink awareness for START_CTX[:cwd]
      test_signals: avoid portability issues with fchmod(2)
      cleanup error handling and make it less noisy
      Do not override Dir.chdir in config files
      configurator: add "working_directory" directive
      configurator: working_directory is expanded
      configurator: set ENV["PWD"] with working_directory, too
      configurator: working_directory affects pid, std{err,out}_paths
      configurator: update documentation for working_directory
      TODO: remove working_directory bit, done
      Util.reopen_logs: remove needless Range
      worker: user/group switching for after_fork hooks
      Fix autoload of Etc in Worker for Ruby 1.9
      bin/unicorn: allow RACK_ENV to be passed from parent
      tests for RACK_ENV preservation
      http: allow headers/trailers to be written byte-wise
      http: extra test for bytewise chunked bodies
      tee_input: do not clobber trailer buffer on partial uploads
      test_exec: ensure master is killed after test
      Util::tmpio returns a TmpIO that responds to #size
      TODO: remove user-switching bit, done
      unicorn 0.94.0

Wayne Larsen (1):
      bin/unicorn: set ENV["RACK_ENV"] on startup

[1] - Unicorn does not support CPU affinity directly, but it is
      possible to load code that allows it inside after_fork hooks,
      or even just call sched_tool(8).

unicorn 0.93.5 / 2009-10-29 21:41 UTC

This release fixes a regression introduced in 0.93.3 where
timed-out worker processes run a chance of not being killed off
at all if they're hung.  While it's not ever advisable to have
requests take a long time, we realize it's easy to fix
everything :)

Eric Wong (3):
      TODO: remove --kill
      fix reliability of timeout kills
      TODO: update for next version (possibly 1.0-pre)

unicorn 0.93.4 / 2009-10-27 07:57 UTC

This release mainly works around BSD stdio compatibility issues
that affect at least FreeBSD and OS X.  While this issues was
documented and fixed in [ruby-core:26300][1], no production
release of MRI 1.8 has it, and users typically upgrade MRI more
slowly than gems.  This issue does NOT affect 1.9 users.  Thanks
to Vadim Spivak for reporting and testing this issue and Andrey
Stikheev for the fix.

Additionally there are small documentation bits, one error
handling improvement, and one minor change that should improve
reliability of signal delivery.

Andrey Stikheev (1):
      workaround FreeBSD/OSX IO bug for large uploads

Eric Wong (7):
      DESIGN: address concerns about on-demand and thundering herd
      README: alter reply conventions for the mailing list
      configurator: stop testing for non-portable listens
      KNOWN_ISSUES: document Rack gem issue w/Rails 2.3.2
      stop continually resends signals during shutdowns
      add news bodies to site NEWS.atom.xml
      configurator: fix broken example in RDoc

Suraj N. Kurapati (1):
      show configuration file path in errors instead of '(eval)'

[1] http://redmine.ruby-lang.org/issues/show/2267

unicorn 0.93.3 / 2009-10-09 22:50 UTC

This release fixes compatibility with OpenBSD (and possibly
other Unices with stricter fchmod(2) implementations) thanks to
Jeremy Evans.  Additionally there are small documentation
changes all around.

Eric Wong (12):
      doc: expand on the SELF_PIPE description
      fchmod heartbeat flips between 0/1 for compatibility
      examples/init.sh: remove "set -u"
      configurator: update with nginx fail_timeout=0 example
      PHILOSOPHY: clarify experience other deployments
      PHILOSOPHY: plug the Rainbows! spin-off project
      README: remove unnecessary and extraneous dash
      DESIGN: clarification and possibly improve HTML validity
      README: remove the "non-existent" part
      README: emphasize the "fast clients"-only part
      drop the whitespace cleaner for Ragel->C
      unicorn 0.93.3

unicorn 0.93.2 / 2009-10-07 08:45 UTC

Avoid truncated POST bodies from with URL-encoded forms in Rails
by switching TeeInput to use read-in-full semantics (only) when
a Content-Length: header exists.  Chunked request bodies
continue to exhibit readpartial semantics to support
simultaneous bidirectional chunking.

The lack of return value checking in Rails to protect against a
short ios.read(length) is entirely reasonable even if not
pedantically correct.  Most ios.read(length) implementations
return the full amount requested except right before EOF.

Also there are some minor documentation improvements.

Eric Wong (8):
      Fix NEWS generation on single-paragraph tag messages
      Include GPLv2 in docs
      doc: make it clear contributors retain copyrights
      TODO: removed Rainbows! (see rainbows.rubyforge.org)
      Document the START_CTX hash contents
      more-compatible TeeInput#read for POSTs with Content-Length
      tests for read-in-full vs readpartial semantics
      unicorn 0.93.2

unicorn 0.93.1 / 2009-10-03 01:17 UTC

Fix permissions for release tarballs/gems, no other changes.
Thanks to Jay Reitz for reporting this.

unicorn 0.93.0 / 2009-10-02 21:04 UTC

The one minor bugfix is only for Rails 2.3.x+ users who set the
RAILS_RELATIVE_URL_ROOT environment variable in a config file.
Users of the "--path" switch or those who set the environment
variable in the shell were unaffected by this bug.  Note that we
still don't have relative URL root support for Rails < 2.3, and
are unlikely to bother with it unless there is visible demand
for it.

New features includes support for :tries and :delay when
specifying a "listen" in an after_fork hook.  This was inspired
by Chris Wanstrath's example of binding per-worker listen
sockets in a loop while migrating (or upgrading) Unicorn.
Setting a negative value for :tries means we'll retry the listen
indefinitely until the socket becomes available.

So you can do something like this in an after_fork hook:

    after_fork do |server, worker|
      addr = "127.0.0.1:#{9293 + worker.nr}"
      server.listen(addr, :tries => -1, :delay => 5)
    end

There's also the usual round of added documentation, packaging
fixes, code cleanups, small fixes and minor performance
improvements that are viewable in the "git log" output.

Eric Wong (55):
      build: hardcode the canonical git URL
      build: manifest dropped manpages
      build: smaller ChangeLog
      doc/LATEST: remove trailing newline
      http: don't force -fPIC if it can't be used
      .gitignore on *.rbc files Rubinius generates
      README/gemspec: a better description, hopefully
      GNUmakefile: add missing .manifest dep on test installs
      Add HACKING document
      configurator: fix user switch example in RDoc
      local.mk.sample: time and perms enforcement
      unicorn_rails: show "RAILS_ENV" in help message
      gemspec: compatibility with older Rubygems
      Split out KNOWN_ISSUES document
      KNOWN_ISSUES: add notes about the "isolate" gem
      gemspec: fix test_files regexp match
      gemspec: remove tests that fork from test_files
      test_signals: ensure we can parse pids in response
      GNUmakefile: cleanup test/manifest generation
      util: remove APPEND_FLAGS constant
      http_request: simplify and remove handle_body method
      http_response: simplify and remove const dependencies
      local.mk.sample: fix .js times
      TUNING: notes about benchmarking a high :backlog
      HttpServer#listen accepts :tries and :delay parameters
      "make install" avoids installing multiple .so objects
      Use Configurator#expand_addr in HttpServer#listen
      configurator: move initialization stuff to #initialize
      Remove "Z" constant for binary strings
      cgi_wrapper: don't warn about stdoutput usage
      cgi_wrapper: simplify status handling in response
      cgi_wrapper: use Array#concat instead of +=
      server: correctly unset reexec_pid on child death
      configurator: update and modernize examples
      configurator: add colons in front of listen() options
      configurator: remove DEFAULT_LOGGER constant
      gemspec: clarify commented-out licenses section
      Add makefile targets for non-release installs
      cleanup: use question mark op for 1-byte comparisons
      RDoc for Unicorn::HttpServer::Worker
      small cleanup to pid file handling + documentation
      rails: RAILS_RELATIVE_URL_ROOT may be set in Unicorn config
      unicorn_rails: undeprecate --path switch
      manpages: document environment variables
      README: remove reference to different versions
      Avoid a small window when a pid file can be empty
      configurator: update some migration examples
      configurator: listen :delay must be Numeric
      test: don't rely on .manifest for test install
      SIGNALS: state that we stole semantics from nginx
      const: DEFAULT_PORT as a string doesn't make sense
      test_helper: unused_port rejects 8080 unconditionally
      GNUmakefile: SINCE variable may be unset
      tests: GIT-VERSION-GEN is a test install dependency
      unicorn 0.93.0

unicorn 0.92.0 / 2009-09-18 21:40 UTC

Small fixes and documentation are the focus of this release.

James Golick reported and helped me track down a bug that caused
SIGHUP to drop the default listener (0.0.0.0:8080) if and only
if listeners were completely unspecified in both the
command-line and Unicorn config file.  The Unicorn config file
remains the recommended option for specifying listeners as it
allows fine-tuning of the :backlog, :rcvbuf, :sndbuf,
:tcp_nopush, and :tcp_nodelay options.

There are some documentation (and resulting website)
improvements.  setup.rb users will notice the new section 1
manpages for `unicorn` and `unicorn_rails`, Rubygems users
will have to install manpages manually or use the website.

The HTTP parser got a 3rd-party code review which resulted in
some cleanups and one insignificant bugfix as a result.

Additionally, the HTTP parser compiles, runs and passes unit
tests under Rubinius.  The pure-Ruby parts still do not work yet
and we currently lack the resources/interest to pursue this
further but help will be gladly accepted.

The website now has an Atom feed for new release announcements.
Those unfamiliar with Atom or HTTP may finger unicorn@bogomips.org
for the latest announcements.

Eric Wong (53):
      README: update with current version
      http: cleanup and avoid potential signedness warning
      http: clarify the setting of the actual header in the hash
      http: switch to macros for bitflag handling
      http: refactor keepalive tracking to functions
      http: use explicit elses for readability
      http: remove needless goto
      http: extra assertion when advancing p manually
      http: verbose assertions
      http: NIL_P(var) instead of var == Qnil
      http: rb_gc_mark already ignores immediates
      http: ignore Host: continuation lines with absolute URIs
      doc/SIGNALS: fix the no-longer-true bit about socket options
      "encoding: binary" comments for all sources (1.9)
      http_response: don't "rescue nil" for body.close
      CONTRIBUTORS: fix capitalization for why
      http: support Rubies without the OBJ_FROZEN macro
      http: define OFFT2NUM macro on Rubies without it
      http: no-op rb_str_modify() for Rubies without it
      http: compile with -fPIC
      http: use rb_str_{update,flush} if available
      http: create a new string buffer on empty values
      Update documentation for Rubinius support status
      http: cleanup assertion for memoized header strings
      http: add #endif comment labels where appropriate
      Add .mailmap file for "git shortlog" and other tools
      Update Manifest with mailmap
      Fix comment about speculative accept()
      SIGNALS: use "Unicorn" when referring to the web server
      Add new Documentation section for manpages
      test_exec: add extra tests for HUP and preload_app
      socket_helper: (FreeBSD) don't freeze the accept filter constant
      Avoid freezing objects that don't benefit from it
      SIGHUP no longer drops lone, default listener
      doc: generate ChangeLog and NEWS file for RDoc
      Remove Echoe and roll our own packaging/release...
      unicorn_rails: close parentheses in help message
      launchers: deprecate ambiguous -P/--p* switches
      man1/unicorn: avoid unnecessary emphasis
      Add unicorn_rails(1) manpage
      Documentation: don't force --rsyncable flag with gzip(1)
      Simplify and standardize manpages build/install
      GNUmakefile: package .tgz includes all generated files
      doc: begin integration of HTML manpages into RDoc
      Update TODO
      html: add Atom feeds
      doc: latest news is available through finger
      NEWS.atom: file timestamp matches latest entry
      pandoc needs the standalone switch for manpages
      man1/unicorn: split out RACK ENVIRONMENT section
      man1/unicorn_rails: fix unescaped underscore
      NEWS.atom.xml only lists the first 10 entries
      unicorn 0.92.0

unicorn 0.10.3r / 2009-09-09 00:09 UTC

Removes the Rev monkey patch, rev 0.3.0 is out now so we can
just depend on that instead of monkey patching it.  Experimental
HTTP keepalive/pipelining support has arrived as well.

Three features from mainline Unicorn are now working again with
this branch:

* Deadlocked workers can be detected by the master and nuked
* multiple (TCP) listeners per process
* graceful shutdown

This (pre-)release does NOT feature HTTP/0.9 support that
Unicorn 0.91.0 had, expect that when this branch is ready for
merging with mainline.

unicorn 0.91.0 / 2009-09-04 19:04 UTC

HTTP/0.9 support, multiline header support, small fixes

18 years too late, Unicorn finally gets HTTP/0.9 support
as HTTP was implemented in 1991.

Eric Wong (16):
      Documentation updates
      examples/echo: "Expect:" value is case-insensitive
      http: make strings independent before modification
      http: support for multi-line HTTP headers
      tee_input: fix rdoc
      unicorn_http: "fix" const warning
      http: extension-methods allow any tokens
      http: support for simple HTTP/0.9 GET requests
      test_http_parser_ng: fix failing HTTP/0.9 test case
      launcher: defer daemonized redirects until config is read
      test to ensure stderr goes *somewhere* when daemonized
      http: SERVER_PROTOCOL matches HTTP_VERSION
      http: add HttpParser#headers? method
      Support HTTP/0.9 entity-body-only responses
      Redirect files in binary mode
      unicorn 0.91.0

unicorn v0.10.2r --rainbows / 2009-08-18 22:28 UTC

Two botched releases in one day, hopefully this is the last...

Eric Wong (3):
      rainbows: monkey-patch Rev::TCPListener for now
      rainbows: make the embedded SHA1 app Rack::Lint-safe
      unicorn 0.10.2r

unicorn 0.10.1r --rainbows / 2009-08-18 22:01 UTC

Ruby 1.9 only, again

Eric Wong (2):
      Actually hook up Rainbows to the rest of the beast
      unicorn 0.10.1r

unicorn 0.10.0r -- rainbows! / 2009-08-18 21:41 UTC

This "release" is for Ruby 1.9 only

unicorn 0.90.0 / 2009-08-17 00:24 UTC

switch chunking+trailer handling to Ragel, v0.8.4 fixes

Moved chunked decoding and trailer parsing over to C/Ragel.
Minor bug fixes, internal code cleanups, and API changes.

Eric Wong (55):
      README: update version numbers for website
      Update Rails tests to run on Rails 2.3.3.1
      README: latest stable version is 0.8.4
      unicorn_http: small cleanups and size reduction
      Remove Ragel-generated file from version control
      unicorn_http: remove typedef from http_parser
      unicorn_http: update copyright
      unicorn_http: change "global_" prefix to "g_"
      unicorn_http: add helpful macros
      extconf: SIZEOF_OFF_T should be a ruby.h macro
      Refactoring unicorn_http C/Ragel code
      http: find_common_field_value => find_common_field
      http: split uncommon_field into a separate function
      http: remove some redundant functions
      http: "hp" denotes http_parser structs for consistency
      http: small cleanup in "https" detection
      http: minor cleanup of http_field handling
      http: split out server params handling
      http: move global initialization code
      http: cleanup setting for common values => globals
      http: remove noise functions
      http: move non-Ruby-specific macros c_util.h
      http: prepare http_parser struct for body processing
      http: generic C string vs VALUEs comparison function
      http: process Content-Length and Transfer-Encoding
      http: preliminary chunk decoding
      test_upload: extra CRLF is needed
      Switch to Ragel/C-based chunk/trailer parser
      http: unit tests for overflow and bad lengths
      http: add test for invalid trailer
      http: join repeated headers with a comma
      test_util: explicitly close tempfiles for GC-safety
      test_exec: wait for worker readiness
      Documentation updates
      test_signals: unlink log files of KILL-ed process
      http: rename read_body to filter_body
      http: add CONST_MEM_EQ macro
      http: add "HttpParser#keepalive?" method
      http: freeze fields when creating them, always
      README: everybody loves Ruby DSLs
      http_request: reinstate empty StringIO optimization
      tee_input: make interface more usable outside of Unicorn
      Drop the micro benchmarks
      http: fix warning when sizeof(off_t) == sizeof(long long)
      GNUmakefile: Fix "install" target
      Fix documentation for Util.reopen_logs
      http_response: pass through unknown status codes
      const: remove unused constants
      update TODO
      http: support for "Connection: keep-alive"
      TODO: remove keep-alive/pipelining
      Make launchers __END__-aware
      Remove explicit requires for Rack things
      app/inetd: explicitly close pipe descriptors on CatBody#close
      unicorn 0.90.0

unicorn 0.8.4 / 2009-08-06 22:48 UTC

pass through unknown HTTP status codes

This release allows graceful degradation in case a user is using a
status code not defined by Rack::Utils::HTTP_STATUS_CODES.  A patch has
been submitted[1] upstream to Rack but this issue may still affect users
of yet-to-be-standardized status codes.

Eric Wong (2):
      http_response: pass through unknown status codes
      unicorn 0.8.4

[1] - http://rack.lighthouseapp.com/projects/22435-rack/tickets/70

unicorn 0.9.2 / 2009-07-20 01:29 UTC

Ruby 1.9.2 preview1 compatibility

This release mainly fixes compatibility issues the Ruby 1.9.2 preview1
release (and one existing 1.9.x issue).  Note that Rails 2.3.2.1 does
NOT appear to work with Ruby 1.9.2 preview1, but that is outside the
scope of this project.

The 0.9.x series (including this release) is only recommended for
development/experimental use.  This series is NOT recommended for
production use, use 0.8.x instead.

Eric Wong (10):
      README: add Gmane newsgroup info
      README: update about development/stable versions
      Rename unicorn/http11 => unicorn_http
      move all #gets logic to tee_input out of chunked_reader
      http_request: don't support apps that close env["rack.input"]
      HttpRequest: no need for a temporary variable
      Remove core Tempfile dependency (1.9.2-preview1 compat)
      fix tests to run correctly under 1.9.2preview1
      app/exec_cgi: fix 1.9 compatibility
      unicorn 0.9.2

unicorn 0.8.3 / 2009-07-20 01:26 UTC

Ruby 1.9.2 preview1 compatibility

This release fixes compatibility issues the Ruby 1.9.2 preview1
release (and one existing 1.9.x issue).  Note that Rails 2.3.2.1
does NOT appear to work with Ruby 1.9.2 preview1, but that
is outside the scope of this project.

Eric Wong (4):
      Remove core Tempfile dependency (1.9.2-preview1 compat)
      fix tests to run correctly under 1.9.2preview1
      app/exec_cgi: fix 1.9 compatibility
      unicorn 0.8.3

unicorn 0.8.2 / 2009-07-09 08:59 UTC

socket handling bugfixes and usability tweaks

Socket handling bugfixes and socket-related usability and
performance tweaks.  We no longer trust FD_CLOEXEC to be
inherited across accept(); thanks to Paul Sponagl for diagnosing
this issue on OSX.  There are also minor tweaks backported from
0.9.0 to make non-graceful restarts/upgrades go more smoothly.

Eric Wong (6):
      Unbind listeners as before stopping workers
      Retry listen() on EADDRINUSE 5 times every 500ms
      Re-add support for non-portable socket options
      Minor cleanups to core
      always set FD_CLOEXEC on sockets post-accept()
      unicorn 0.8.2

unicorn 0.9.1 / 2009-07-09 08:49 UTC

FD_CLOEXEC portability fix (v0.8.2 port)

Minor cleanups, set FD_CLOEXEC on accepted listen sockets
instead of relying on the flag to be inherited across accept.

The 0.9.x series (including this release) is NOT recommended for
production use, try 0.8.x instead.

Eric Wong (10):
      Avoid temporary array creation
      Favor Struct members to instance variables
      Minor cleanups to core
      Unbind listeners as before stopping workers
      Retry listen() on EADDRINUSE 5 times ever 500ms
      Re-add support for non-portable socket options
      Minor cleanups to core (cherry picked from commit ec70433f84664af0dff1336845ddd51f50a714a3)
      always set FD_CLOEXEC on sockets post-accept()
      unicorn 0.8.2
      unicorn 0.9.1 (merge 0.8.2)

unicorn 0.9.0 / 2009-07-01 22:24 UTC

bodies: "Transfer-Encoding: chunked", rewindable streaming

We now have support for "Transfer-Encoding: chunked" bodies in
requests.  Not only that, Rack applications reading input bodies
get that data streamed off to the client socket on an as-needed
basis.  This allows the application to do things like upload
progress notification and even tunneling of arbitrary stream
protocols via bidirectional chunked encoding.

See Unicorn::App::Inetd and examples/git.ru (including the
comments) for an example of tunneling the git:// protocol over
HTTP.

This release also gives applications the ability to respond
positively to "Expect: 100-continue" headers before being rerun
without closing the socket connection.  See Unicorn::App::Inetd
for an example of how this is used.

This release is NOT recommended for production use.

Eric Wong (43):
      http_request: no need to reset the request
      http_request: StringIO is binary for empty bodies (1.9)
      http_request: fix typo for 1.9
      Transfer-Encoding: chunked streaming input support
      Unicorn::App::Inetd: reinventing Unix, poorly :)
      README: update with mailing list info
      local.mk.sample: publish_doc gzips all html, js, css
      Put copyright text in new files, include GPL2 text
      examples/cat-chunk-proxy: link to proposed curl(1) patch
      Update TODO
      Avoid duplicating the "Z" constant
      Optimize body-less GET/HEAD requests (again)
      tee_input: Don't expose the @rd object as a return value
      exec_cgi: small cleanups
      README: another note about older Sinatra
      tee_input: avoid defining a @rd.size method
      Make TeeInput easier to use
      test_upload: add tests for chunked encoding
      GNUmakefile: more stringent error checking in tests
      test_upload: fix ECONNRESET with 1.9
      GNUmakefile: allow TRACER= to be specified for tests
      test_rails: workaround long-standing 1.9 bug
      tee_input: avoid rereading fresh data
      "Fix" tests that break with stream_input=false
      inetd: fix broken constant references
      configurator: provide stream_input (true|false) option
      chunked_reader: simpler interface
      http_request: force BUFFER to be Encoding::BINARY
      ACK clients on "Expect: 100-continue" header
      Only send "100 Continue" when no body has been sent
      http_request: tighter Transfer-Encoding: "chunked" check
      Add trailer_parser for parsing trailers
      chunked_reader: Add test for chunk parse failure
      TeeInput: use only one IO for tempfile
      trailer_parser: set keys with "HTTP_" prefix
      TrailerParser integration into ChunkedReader
      Unbind listeners as before stopping workers
      Retry listen() on EADDRINUSE 5 times ever 500ms
      Re-add support for non-portable socket options
      Move "Expect: 100-continue" handling to the app
      tee_input: avoid ignoring initial body blob
      Force streaming input onto apps by default
      unicorn 0.9.0

unicorn 0.8.1 / 2009-05-28 21:45 UTC

safer timeout handling, more consistent reload behavior

This release features safer, more descriptive timeout handling, more
consistent reload behavior, and is a miniscule amount faster on
"Hello World" benchmarks

Eric Wong (7):
      doc: cleanup summary/description
      Fix potential race condition in timeout handling
      SIGHUP reloads app even if preload_app is true
      Make our HttpRequest object a global constant
      Avoid instance variables lookups in a critical path
      Consistent logger assignment for multiple objects
      unicorn 0.8.1

unicorn 0.8.0 / 2009-05-26 22:59 UTC

enforce Rack dependency, minor performance improvements and fixes

The RubyGem now has a hard dependency on Rack.  Minor performance
improvements and code cleanups.  If RubyGems are in use, the Gem index
is refreshed when SIGHUP is issued.

Eric Wong (66):
      test_request: enable with Ruby 1.9 now Rack 1.0.0 is out
      Small cleanup
      test_upload: still uncomfortable with 1.9 IO encoding...
      Add example init script
      app/exec_cgi: GC prevention
      Add TUNING document
      Make speculative accept() faster for the common case
      app/old_rails: correctly log errors in output
      http_request: avoid StringIO.new for GET/HEAD requests
      http_response: luserspace buffering is barely faster
      benchmark/*: updates for newer versions of Unicorn
      http_request: switch to readpartial over sysread
      No point in unsetting the O_NONBLOCK flag
      Merge commit 'origin/benchmark'
      Safer timeout handling and test case
      Ignore unhandled master signals in the workers
      TUNING: add a note about somaxconn with UNIX sockets
      Remove redundant socket closing/checking
      Instant shutdown signals really mean instant shutdown
      test_signals: ready workers before connecting
      Speed up the worker accept loop
      Fix a warning about @pid being uninitialized
      Inline and remove the HttpRequest#reset method
      Preserve 1.9 IO encodings in reopen_logs
      configurator: fix rdoc formatting
      http_request: use Rack::InputWrapper-compatible methods
      app/exec_cgi: use explicit buffers for read/sysread
      Enforce minimum timeout at 3 seconds
      Avoid killing sleeping workers
      Remove trickletest
      HttpRequest::DEF_PARAMS => HttpRequest::DEFAULTS
      exec_cgi: don't assume the body#each consumer is a socket
      Reopen master logs on SIGHUP, too
      Require Rack for HTTP Status codes
      http_response: allow string status codes
      test_response: correct OFS test
      privatize constants only used by old_rails/static
      Disable formatting for command-line switches
      GNUmakefile: glob all files in bin/*
      test_request: enable with Ruby 1.9 now Rack 1.0.0 is out
      test_upload: still uncomfortable with 1.9 IO encoding...
      Add example init script
      app/exec_cgi: GC prevention
      Add TUNING document
      app/old_rails: correctly log errors in output
      Safer timeout handling and test case
      Ignore unhandled master signals in the workers
      TUNING: add a note about somaxconn with UNIX sockets
      Fix a warning about @pid being uninitialized
      Preserve 1.9 IO encodings in reopen_logs
      configurator: fix rdoc formatting
      Enforce minimum timeout at 3 seconds
      http_response: allow string status codes
      test_response: correct OFS test
      Disable formatting for command-line switches
      GNUmakefile: glob all files in bin/*
      Merge branch '0.7.x-stable'
      Define HttpRequest#reset if missing
      Merge branch 'benchmark'
      unicorn 0.7.1
      Merge commit 'v0.7.1'
      Refresh Gem list when building the app
      Only refresh the gem list when building the app
      Switch to autoload to defer requires
      remove trickletest from Manifest
      unicorn 0.8.0

unicorn 0.7.1 / 2009-05-22 09:06 UTC

minor fixes, cleanups and documentation improvements

Eric Wong (18):
      test_request: enable with Ruby 1.9 now Rack 1.0.0 is out
      test_upload: still uncomfortable with 1.9 IO encoding...
      Add example init script
      app/exec_cgi: GC prevention
      Add TUNING document
      app/old_rails: correctly log errors in output
      Safer timeout handling and test case
      Ignore unhandled master signals in the workers
      TUNING: add a note about somaxconn with UNIX sockets
      Fix a warning about @pid being uninitialized
      Preserve 1.9 IO encodings in reopen_logs
      configurator: fix rdoc formatting
      Enforce minimum timeout at 3 seconds
      http_response: allow string status codes
      test_response: correct OFS test
      Disable formatting for command-line switches
      GNUmakefile: glob all files in bin/*
      unicorn 0.7.1

unicorn 0.7.0 / 2009-04-25 18:59 UTC

rack.version is 1.0

Rack 1.0.0 compatibility, applications are now passed
env["rack.version"] == [1, 0]

Eric Wong (5):
      doc: formatting changes for SIGNALS doc
      configurator: "listen" directive more nginx-like
      Fix log rotation being delayed in workers when idle
      Rack 1.0.0 compatibility
      unicorn 0.7.0

unicorn 0.6.0 / 2009-04-24 21:47 UTC

cleanups + optimizations, signals to {in,de}crement processes

* Mostly OCD-induced yak-shaving changes

* SIGTTIN and SIGTTOU are now used to control incrementing and
  decrementing of worker processes without needing to change
  the config file and SIGHUP.

Eric Wong (46):
      test_upload: ensure StringIO objects are binary
      http11: cleanup #includes and whitespace
      GNUmakefile: Fix ragel dependencies
      GNUmakefile: kill trailing whitespace after ragel
      Move absolute URI parsing into HTTP parser
      http11: remove unused variables/elements
      http_request: freeze modifiable elements
      HttpParser: set QUERY_STRING for Rack-compliance
      GNUmakefile: mark test_signals as a slow test
      const: remove unused QUERY_STRING constant
      http11: formatting cleanups
      http11: remove callbacks from structure
      replace DATA_GET macro with a function
      http11: minor cleanups in return types
      http11: make parser obey HTTP_HOST with empty port
      http11: cleanup some CPP macros
      http11: rfc2616 handling of absolute URIs
      http_response: small speedup by eliminating loop
      Stop extending core classes
      rename socket.rb => socket_helper.rb
      Remove @start_ctx instance variable
      http11: support underscores in URI hostnames
      test: empty port test for absolute URIs
      Cleanup some unnecessary requires
      Cleanup GNUmakefile and fix dependencies
      Fix data corruption with small uploads via browsers
      Get rid of UNICORN_TMP_BASE constant
      GNUmakefile: mark test_upload as a slow test
      unicorn_rails: avoid nesting lambdas
      test_exec: cleanup stale socket on exit
      Merge commit 'v0.5.4'
      http_request: micro optimizations
      IO_PURGATORY should be a global constant
      Make LISTENERS and WORKERS global constants, too
      test_socket_helper: disable GC for this test
      http_response: just barely faster
      http_response: minor performance gains
      make SELF_PIPE is a global constant
      Describe the global constants we use.
      Fixup reference to a dead variable
      Avoid getppid() if serving heavy traffic
      minor cleanups and save a few variables
      Allow std{err,out}_path to be changed via HUP
      SIGTT{IN,OU} {in,de}crements worker_processes
      cleanup: avoid duped self-pipe init/replacement logic
      unicorn 0.6.0

unicorn 0.5.4 / 2009-04-24 01:41 UTC

fix data corruption with some small uploads (not curl)

Eric Wong (2):
      Fix data corruption with small uploads via browsers
      unicorn 0.5.4

unicorn 0.5.3 / 2009-04-17 05:32 UTC

fix 100% CPU usage when idle, small cleanups

fix 100% CPU usage when idle

Eric Wong (7):
      update Manifest (add test_signals.rb)
      Fix forgotten Rails tests
      Fix my local.mk file to always run Rails tests
      fix 100% CPU usage when idle
      remove DATE constant
      Small garbage reduction in HttpResponse
      unicorn 0.5.3

unicorn 0.5.2 / 2009-04-16 23:32 UTC

force Status: header for compat, small cleanups

* Ensure responses always have the "Status:" header.  This
  is needed for compatibility with some broken clients.

* Other small and minor cleanups

Eric Wong (10):
      Explicitly trap SIGINT/SIGTERM again
      s/rotating/reopening/g in log messages
      before_commit and before_exec can never be nil/false
      worker_loop cleanups, var golf, and yak-shaving
      http11: default server port is 443 for https
      ensure responses always have the "Status:" header
      test: fix dependency issue with "make test-unit"
      GNUmakefile: small dependency cleanups
      unicorn/const: kill trailing whitespace
      unicorn 0.5.2

unicorn 0.5.1 / 2009-04-13 21:24 UTC

exit correctly on INT/TERM, QUIT is still recommended, however

We now exit correctly on INT/TERM signals, QUIT is still
recommended as it does graceful shutdowns.

Eric Wong (2):
      Fix SIGINT/SIGTERM handling (broken in 0.5.0)
      unicorn 0.5.1

unicorn 0.5.0 / 2009-04-13 19:08 UTC

{after,before}_fork API change, small tweaks/fixes

* There is an API change in the {after,before}_fork hooks
  so now the entire Worker struct is exposed to the user.
  This allows Unicorn to unofficially support user/group
  privilege changing.

* The "X-Forwarded-Proto:" header can be set by proxies
  to ensure rack.url_scheme is "https" for SSL-enabled
  sites.

* Small cleanups and tweaks throughout, see shortlog (below)
  or changelog for details.

Eric Wong (32):
      test_helper: redirect_io uses append and sync
      configurator: allow hooks to be passed callable objects
      Add a test for signal recovery
      Documentation updates
      Enforce umask 0000 with UNIX domain sockets
      local.mk: touch files after set-file-times
      Add test for :preload_app config option
      GNUmakefile: remove unnecessary asterisks in output
      GNUmakefile: allow "make V=1 ..." for verbosity
      test_configurator: rename test name that never ran
      cleanup some log messages
      test_request: tests esoteric/rare REQUEST_URIs
      http11: Remove qsort/bsearch code paths
      http11: handle "X-Forwarded-Proto: https"
      close listeners when removing them from our array
      config: handle listener unbind/replace in config file
      README: doc updates
      Restore unlinked UNIX sockets on SIGHUP
      listen backlog, sndbuf, rcvbuf are always changeable
      Remove _all_ non-POSIX socket options
      http11: cleanup+safer rack.url_scheme handling
      test_exec: fix potential races in fd leak test
      test_http_parser: fix broken URL in comment
      Save one fcntl() syscall on every request
      Remove unnecessary sync assignment
      Don't bother restoring ENV or umask across reexec
      old_rails: try harder to ensure valid responses
      small cleanups in signal handling and worker init
      Remove unnecessary local variables in process_client
      Expose worker to {before,after}_fork hooks
      Configurator: add example for user/group switching
      unicorn 0.5.0

unicorn 0.4.2 / 2009-04-02 19:14 UTC

fix Rails ARStore, FD leak prevention, descriptive proctitles

Eric Wong (16):
      Manifest: updates
      Merge unicorn
      test_exec: add test case for per-worker listeners
      Remove set_cloexec wrapper and require FD_CLOEXEC
      All IOs created in workers have FD_CLOEXEC set
      FD_CLOEXEC all non-listen descriptors before exec
      Close std{err,out} redirection targets
      test_upload: fix a race condition in unlink test
      More descriptive process titles
      unicorn_rails: cleanup redundant bits
      test/rails: v2.1.2 + ActiveRecordStore all around
      Use File.basename instead of a regexp
      Add log directories to tests
      unicorn: remove unnecessary lambda generation
      GNUmakefile: "install" preserves unicorn_rails
      unicorn 0.4.2

unicorn v0.4.1 / 2009-04-01 10:52 UTC

Rails support, per-listener backlog and {snd,rcv}buf

Eric Wong (50):
      All new benchmarks, old ones removed
      benchmark: header values must be strings
      Merge commit 'origin/benchmark' into release
      HttpResponse: speed up non-multivalue headers
      Streamline rack environment generation
      Don't bother unlinking UNIX sockets
      unicorn_rails: support non-Rack versions of Rails
      HttpRequest: small improvement for GET requests
      simplify the HttpParser interface
      Socket: add {snd,rcv}buf opts to bind_listen
      Merge commit 'v0.2.3'
      Don't allow failed log rotation to to break app
      Deferred log rotation in workers
      style: symbols instead of strings for signal names
      No need to disable luserspace buffering on client socket
      test_server: quieter tests
      Remove needless line break
      Always try to send a valid HTTP response back
      test_response: ensure closed socket after write
      test_response: ensure response body is closed
      TODO: update roadmap to 1.0.0
      configurator: per-listener backlog, {rcv,snd}buf config
      configurator: favor "listen" directive over "listeners"
      http11: use :http_body instead of "HTTP_BODY"
      Avoid having two pid files pointing to the same pid
      test_exec: fix race conditions
      test_exec: fix response bodies
      Fix default listener setup
      test_exec: fix another race condition
      bin/*: parse CLI switches in config.ru sooner
      app/old_rails/static: define missing constant
      unicorn_rails: give more info when aborting
      GNUmakefile: add test-exec and test-unit targets
      cgi_wrapper: ensure "Status:" header is not set
      Better canonicalization of listener paths + tests
      configurator: remove unnecessary SocketHelper include
      unicorn_rails: minor cleanup for dead variable
      Use {read,write}_nonblock on the pipe
      unicorn_rails: cleanup path mapping usage
      Rails stack tests for unicorn_rails
      test: factor out exec helpers into common code for Rails tests
      cgi_wrapper: fix cookies and other headers
      GNUmakefile: prefix errors with $(extra) variable
      cgi_wrapper: HTTP status code cleanups
      Add more tests for Rails
      test_rails: 4x speedup
      Manifest update
      Documentation updates, prep for 0.4.1 release
      Add local.mk.sample file that I use
      unicorn 0.4.1

unicorn v0.2.3 / 2009-03-25 23:31 UTC

Unlink Tempfiles after use (they were closed, just not unlinked)

Eric Wong (3):
      Don't bother unlinking UNIX sockets
      Ensure Tempfiles are unlinked after every request
      unicorn 0.2.3

unicorn v0.2.2 / 2009-03-22 23:45 UTC

small bug fixes, fix Rack multi-value headers (Set-Cookie:)

Eric Wong (19):
      Fix link to Rubyforge releases page
      start libifying common launcher code
      unicorn_rails: fix standard pid path setup
      Move listen path and address expansion to Configurator
      Trap WINCH to QUIT children without respawning
      Remove Mongrel stuff from CHANGELOG
      HttpResponse: close body if it can close
      Add Unicorn::App::ExecCgi
      Process management cleanups
      documentation/disclaimer updates
      unicorn_rails: remove unnecessary Rack-loading logic
      unicorn/http11: remove GATEWAY_INTERFACE
      http11: don't set headers Rack doesn't like
      HttpRequest test so our requests pass Rack::Lint
      HttpRequest: correctly reference logger
      Rotate master logs before workers.
      Simplify code for sleeping/waking up the master
      Handle Rack multivalue headers correctly
      unicorn 0.2.2

unicorn v0.2.1 / 2009-03-19 03:20 UTC

Fix broken Manifest that cause unicorn_rails to not be bundled

Eric Wong (1):
      unicorn v0.2.1, fix the Manifest

unicorn v0.2.0 / 2009-03-19 03:16 UTC

unicorn_rails launcher script.

Eric Wong (8):
      Start _Known Issues_ section in README
      Allow binding to UNIX sockets relative to "~"
      tests: do not trust (our correct use of) 1.9 encodings
      gracefully die if working dir is invalid at fork
      Add signal queueing for test reliability
      Add unicorn_rails script for Rails 2.3.2
      Documentation updates, prepare for 0.2.0
      unicorn 0.2.0

unicorn v0.1.0 / 2009-03-11 01:50 UTC

Unicorn - UNIX-only fork of Mongrel free of threading

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